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Dictionary of Vexillology: C (Cross Patriarchal - Crosstree)

Last modified: 2017-09-16 by rob raeside
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CROSS PATRIARCHAL
See ‘cross of Lorraine’.

Cross patriarchal Cross patriarchal
Arms and Flag of Roeselare, Belgium (Wikipedia & fotw)


CROSS PATTÉE (PATÉE, PATTY or PATY)
The heraldic term for a cross that may or may not extend to the outer edges of a shield, flag, canton or panel, whose arms are generally (but not exclusively) flat-ended but which is wider at its outer ends than it is in the centre. The arms can be straight-sided or curved throughout their length, or they can be straight-sided and parallel until being flared at their outer end – a cross formée, formé or formy, a pattée, patée, patty or Paty cross, a formée, formé or formy cross, or an iron or Hanseatic, Hansa, cavalier or cavalier’s cross – but see ‘Maltese cross’ and ‘rounded cross’ (also ‘cross 2)’ and ‘Cross of the Order of the Knights of Christ’, ).

Cross pattee Cross pattee Cross pattee Cross pattee Cross pattee
From left: Cross Pattee Example; Civil Ensign of Guernsey; Arms and Flag of Oensingen, Switzerland (Wikipedia & fotw); Flag of Wallis & Fortuna


CROSS PATTÉE ROUNDED
See ‘rounded cross’.

Cross pattee rounded Cross pattee rounded
Arms and Flag of Outeiro Major, Portugal (fotw)


CROSS POMEL (POMÉE, POMMETTY or POMMELLY)
The heraldic term for a cross which does not usually extend to the edges of a shield, flag, canton or panel, but whose arms finish in a roundel (see also ‘cross 2)’, ‘pommeled’ and ‘roundel 3))’

Cross pomel Cross pomel Cross pomel Cross d2574
Example (Parker); Flag of Lagoa, Portugal (Sérgio Horta); Arms and Flag of Santa Cruz, Portugal (Klaus-Michael Schneider)


CROSS POTENT (or POTENCE)
The heraldic term for a cross which does not usually extend to the edges of a shield, flag, canton or panel, but whose arms terminate in a transverse bar – a cross potence or potent, or a crutch or Teutonic Cross (see also ‘cross 2)’, ‘cross-cantonée’ and ‘potent 2)’).

Cross potent Cross potent Cross potent Cross potent
From left: Cross-Potent example; Flag of Goumoëns-la-Ville, Switzerland (fotw); Arms and Flag of Fernão Ferro, Portugal (fotw)


CROSS POTENT CANTONÉE
A ‘Jerusalem cross’ – see ‘cross potent’ and ‘cross-cantonée’.

Cross potent canotnee Cross potent canotnee Cross potent canotnee Cross potent canotnee Cross potent canotnee
Example; Flag and Arms of Niawier, The Netherlands (fotw & Wikipedia); Flag and Arms of the Kingdom of Jerusalem 1162 – 1191 (fotw and Wikipedia)


CROSS POTENT REBATED
See ‘swastika’ (also ‘cross potent’).

Cross potent rebated
Flag of Hirosaki, Japan (fotw)


CROSS QUARTERED
A translation of the Spanish term cruz cuartelada, and German "geviertes Kreuz" sometimes used in place of their (English) heraldic equivalents - see ‘cross counterchanged’ and ‘cross gyronny’ (also ‘cross counter-quartered 2)’).

Bormojus, Spain Palomares del Río, Spain
Flag of Bormujos, Spain (Ivan Sache); Flag of Palomares del Río, Spain (Klaus-Michael Schneider)


CROSS QUARTER-PIERCED
In heraldry see ‘equipollé’ and its following note.

Ħ'Attard, Malta Ħ'Attard, Malta
Arms and Flag of Ħ'Attard, Malta (Wikipedia & fotw)


CROSS RAGULY
See ‘ragged cross’ and ‘raguly’.

Spanish naval flag 16th-17th century
Spanish Naval Flag 16-17th C (fotw)


CROSS TAU
The heraldic term for a cross that may or may not extend to the edges of a shield, flag, canton or panel, but in which the vertical arm does not extend above the horizontal thus creating a letter ‘T’ - a Cross of St Anthony or St Anthony’s Cross, and in some Christian denominations, an advent cross.

cross tau cross tau St Antönien-Ascharina, Switzerland St Antönien-Ascharina, Switzerland
From Left: Cross Tau Example; Flag of Lede, Belgium (fotw); Arms and Flag of St. Antönien-Ascharina, Switzerland (Wikipedia & fotw)


CROSS THROUGHOUT
See ‘cross 1)’.

Pontrieux, France
Flag of Pontrieux, France (fotw)


CROSS TREFOIL (or TREFLEE)
In heraldry see ‘cross botonny’.

cross trefoil cross trefoil
Arms and Flag of the Church of Norway (Wikipedia & fotw)


CROSS-VOIDED
The heraldic term for a cross that may or may not reach the edges of a shield, banner of arms or flag and may be either closed or open-ended, but from which the centre is removed so that the field may be seen through it (see also ‘cross of athletics’ and ‘voided’).

cross voided cross voided cross voided cross voided
From Left: Cross-Voided Example; Flag of the Mouvement Normand, France (fotw); Flag and Arms of De Haan, Belgium (fotw & Wikipedia)

Notes
a) Unless referring to a plain cross, this term is always accompanied by a further description, for example "a cross pattée voided".
b) This term is sometimes (incorrectly used to describe a Cross of the Order of the Knights of Christ as illustrated below – see ‘cross of the Order of the Knights of Christ’.

cross voided
A banner of the Order of the Knights of Christ (fotw)


CROSSED BRANCHES
1) Short lengths of (occasionally differing) foliage, sometimes with flowers/fruit etc., and sometimes without, which intersect at their lowest point.
2) A phrase occasionally used in place of the more precise terms “garland” and “wreath” – see ‘garland 2)’ and ‘wreath 1)’.

crossed branches crossed branches crossed branches crossed branches crossed branches crossed branches
Detail and National Flag of Turkmenistan (fotw); Arms and Flag of Pennsylvania, US (fotw); Arms and National Flag of San Marino (fotw)


CROSSLET
The heraldic term used when two or more miniature crosses appear on the same coat of arms – see ‘cross crosslet’ (also ‘coat of arms 2)’).

crosslet  crosslet crosslet crosslet crosslet crosslet
Arms and Official Flag of Galicia, Spain (fotw); Arms and Flag of Òdena, Spain (Wikipedia & fotw); Arms and Flag of Woudrichem, The Netherlands (Wikipedia & fotw)


CROSSTREE
1) In largely US usage, a yard if fitted to a flag mast ashore (see also ‘yard’).
2) A cross bar attached near the top of an unstayed flagpole for the purpose of providing additional halyards to the one reeved at the truck (see also ‘reeve’, 'yard' and 'stayed mast').

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