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Dictionary of Vexillology: C (Crooked Cross - Cross Equipollé)

Last modified: 2017-09-16 by rob raeside
Keywords: vexillological terms |
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CROOKED CROSS
See ‘swastika’.

crooked cross
Flag of the Hitler Youth 1933 – 1945, Germany (fotw)


CROSS
1) Two stripes or bands of equal width (and in the same colour) but of unequal length, that extend to the outer edges of the shield, flag, canton or panel they occupy, and intersect at right angles in the exact centre of that flag, canton or panel – a St George-type cross, a cross fixed, cross throughout, an upright centred, centred, regular or square cross (see also ‘St George’s Cross’).
2) A charge, which may or may not reach the outer edges of the shield, flag, canton or panel it occupies, and which may not have straight edges but which has four segments meeting at right angles at a central point – but see note below below.
3) A generic name for two stripes of the same colour (although two/three colour variants exist see ‘cross counterchanged’ plus ‘cross gyronny’, ‘tripartite’ and ‘layered cross’) and any width, crossing the field of a flag, panel or canton in any manner (see also ‘saltire’ and ‘Scandinavian cross’).

[Cruzilia, Brazil] [Hajdina, Slovenia] [Annœullin, France] [Pisa, Italy] [Asturias, Spain]
From left: Flag of Cruzilia, Brazil (fotw); Flag of Hajdina, Slovenia (fotw); Flag of Annœullin, France (fotw); Flag of Pisa, Italy (fotw); Flag of Asturias, Spain (fotw).

Please note however, that whilst several of the types used on flags are detailed separately herein – the cross throughout as given in 1) above, the Greek cross, the Celtic cross, the Scandinavian cross, the saltire (or diagonal cross), Cross of Lorraine, the swastika, and the Maltese cross – numerous other variants exist (mostly used in heraldry but which also sometimes appear on flags), and the majority of these are listed below.


CROSS ANNULETTY
See ‘sun cross’ and its following note.

cross annuletty example
Flag of the NorFdiska Rikspartiet, Sweden (fotw)


CROSS BAR (CROSS-BAR or CROSSBAR)
The transverse rod, from which a flag is suspended, either attached in the centre or from one end, or hung by cords from a vertical pole or poles (see also ‘banner 2)’, ‘banner 3)’, ‘frame 1)’, ‘frame 2)’, ‘framed flag’, ‘gonfalon’ and ‘vexillum’).

cross bar example cross bar example
Gonfalon of Albano Sant'Alessandro, Italy (fotw); Gonfalon of Baradili, Italy (fotw)


CROSS BARBED
See ‘arrow cross’.

barbed cross example
Example (Wikipedia)


CROSS BOTONNY (BOTTONNY or BOTTONÉE)
The heraldic term for a cross that does not usually extend to the edges of a shield, flag, canton or panel, but whose ends are formed by three discs – a trefoil or treflee cross (see also ‘cross 2)’, ‘disc’ and ‘trefoil’).

botonny cross example botonny cross example St. Maurice, Italy Massonnens, Switzerland Massonnens, Switzerland
Flag and Arms of Negoslavci, Croatia (fotw); Flag of the Order of St Maurice, Italy (fotw); Arms and Flag of Massonnens, Switzerland (Wikipedia & fotw).


CROSS-CANTONÉE (or CANTONED)
The heraldic term for a cross which may or may not extend to the edges of a shield, flag, canton or panel, but which has four further crosses (or other charges) arranged around it – a cross cantoned (see also ‘canton 3)’, ‘cantoned 1)’, ‘cross 1)’, ‘cross pattée’, and ‘cross potent’ and ‘cross potent cantonée’).

example example national flag of Georgia national flag of Georgia national flag of Georgia
From left: Crosses-Cantonée examples; Flag of Tianeti, Georgia (fotw); The Kingdom of Jerusalem c1200 (CS); National Flag of Georgia (fotw)

Please note as may be seen in the illustrations above, various types of cross can be used to make up a cross cantonée, and that a Jerusalem Cross (a cross-potent cantonée constructed of a cross-potent and four Greek crosses or of five crosses-potent) is one specific type.


CROSS-CELTIC
See ‘Celtic cross

Celtic cross Celtic cross Celtic cross
Flag and Logo of the Church in Wales, UK (fotw)


CROSS-CLECHÉE
The heraldic term for a cross that does not generally extend to the edges of a shield, flag, panel or flag, but whose arms are in the form of (usually irregular) lozenges or fusils – a cross-lozengy or cross-fusilly (see also ‘cross 2)’, ‘fusil’ and ‘lozenge’).

example Mogilany, Poland arms - Mogilany, Poland flag - Mogilany, Poland
From left: Cross-Clechee Examples; Arms and Flag of Mogilany, Poland (fotw)


CROSS-COUNTERCHANGED
The heraldic term for a cross that generally extends to the edges of a shield, panel, banner of arms or flag, and which is divided along its horizontal and vertical centre-line with the tinctures of the field and cross usually (but not exclusively) alternating in adjacent quarters – a counterchanged cross or cross counter-quartered – but compare with ‘cross gyronny’ (see also ‘counterchanged’, ‘cross 2)’, ‘Dominican cross’, ‘quarter 2)’ and ‘tincture’).

[cross-counterchanged] [cross-counterchanged] [cross-counterchanged] [cross-counterchanged]
Arms and Flag of Zaprešić, Croatia (fotw); Arms and Flag of Kreis Davos, Switzerland (fotw)

Please note that a cross that is divided only along either its horizontal or vertical centre-line is properly blazoned using a full description – for example, “per fess argent and azure a cross-couped counterchanged" or “per pale argent and gules a Maltese Cross counterchanged” as shown below.

[cross-counterchanged] [cross-counterchanged]
Flag of Zurrieq, Malta (fotw): Flag of Villars-Sainte-Croix, Switzerland (fotw)


CROSS COUNTER-QUARTERED
1) See ‘cross counterchanged’.
2) The term that may also be used when the centre of a cross of this general type is obscured as illustrated below - see ‘cross gyronny’.

[cross-counterquartered] [cross-counterquartered] [cross-counterquartered] [cross-counterquartered] [cross-counterquartered]
Arms and Flag of Tursko, Czech Republic (fotw); Flag of Palomares del Río, Spain (fotw); Arms and Flag of Zaprešić, Croatia (fotw)


CROSS-COUPED
A heraldic term sometimes used when a cross (either plain or decorated) does not extend to edges of a shield, banner of arms or flag (see also ‘couped 2)’ and ‘Greek cross’).

cross couped cross couped cross couped cross couped cross couped cross couped cross couped
National Flag of Tonga (fotw): Arms and Flag of Senèdes, Switzerland (Wikipedia & fotw); Arms and Flag of Tinizong-Rona, Switzerland (Wikipedia and fotw); Arms and Flag of Faido, Switzerland (Wikipedia & fotw)

Please note that, unless referring to a plain cross, this term is always accompanied by a further description, for example a a “cross tau couped” (as illustrated above, or a “cross crosslet couped” as shown in the following definition.


CROSS CROSSLET
The heraldic term for a cross which does not usually extend to the edges of a shield, flag canton or panel, but whose arms have a short transverse bar inserted (see also ‘cross 2)’).

botonny cross example Dobrzyca, Poland Echt-Susteren, Netherlands Słupca, Poland Słupca, Poland
Arms and Flag of Dobrzyca, Poland (fotw); Flag of Echt-Susteren, The Netherlands (fotw); Arms and Flag of Słupca, Poland (fotw)


CROSS ENGRAILED
See ‘engrailed’.

cross engrailed cross engrailed
Arms and Flag of Espinho, Portugal (Sérgio Horta)


CROSS EQUIPOLLÉ (or EQUIPOLLÉE)
See ‘equipollé’.

Sé, Portugal Sé, Portugal
Arms and Flag of Sé, Portugal (Antonio Martins)


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