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Dictionary of Vexillology: L (Labarum - Layered Saltire)

Last modified: 2017-06-20 by rob raeside
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LABARUM
1) A flag based on the vexillum and combining Christian symbols with those of the Roman military, introduced by the Emperor Constantine in the early 4th Century AD, and later used as an imperial standard (see also ‘vexillum’).
2) The term sometimes used to describe a (comparatively) simple religious banner – see ‘banner 3)’.

[labarum]  [labarum] [labarum] [labarum]
The Labarum of Constantine: Modern Religious Labara (Wikipedia); Arms and Flag of Ervões, Portugal (Antonio Martins)

Please note - not to be confused with a Cantabrian labarum (see 'Cantabrian labarum').


LABEL
1) See ‘cadency, mark of’.
2) In heraldry a term sometimes also used to describe the tapes which hang below a prelate’s mitre – but see ‘stringed’.
3) In British usage, the (varyingly detailed) marks of cadency employed on the standards of particular Royal Family members (see also ‘royal standard(s) 2)’, plus ‘cadency, mark of’ and its following note ‘difference 1)’ and ‘variant 1)’).

[label example]  [label example]  [label example]
British Royal Standards Showing the Labels of HRH The Prince of Wales, HRH Prince William and of HRH Princess Anne (fotw)


LAMB OF GOD
See ‘agnus dei’.

[lamb of God]
Flag of Berlikum, The Netherlands (fotw)


LANCE
A long light-weight spear with which some cavalry regiments were formerly armed, and upon which the standard or guidon was also carried - now restricted to historical or ceremonial use (see also ‘guidon 1) & 2)’, ‘lance flag’, ‘lance pennon 1)’, ‘staff 2)’ and ‘standard 2)’).

[lancer]
Lancer, France 1812 (wiki)


LANCE FLAG (or PENNANT)
A small flag or pennant, usually swallow-tailed or triangular and of generally simple (bicolour) design, formerly carried below the lance head by those cavalry regiments so armed, or currently by some mounted police units in parade dress, and now restricted to historical/ceremonial use - a lance pennon (see also ‘banneret 2)’, ‘pennant 2)’, ‘lance’ and ‘lance pennon 1)’).

[lance flag] [lance flag] [lance flag]
From left: Lance Flags, British c1840; Mounted Police, New South Wales and Victoria, Australia

Please note that the use of lance-armed cavalry and the general design of their flag or pennant derive from Polish practice – Poland having been the country from which lance-armed light cavalry was adopted in the late 18th century.


LANCE PENNON
1)The term for an armigerous lance flag, either triangular, either fork-tailed or square-ended according to rank, and carried by a medieval mounted knight (see also ‘armigerous’, ‘banner of arms’, ‘banneret 2)’, ‘lance’, ‘lance flag’, ‘pennoncier’ and ‘heraldic standard’.
2) 2) See ‘badge pennon’.
3) See ‘lance flag’.

[Lance pennon]  Lance pennon  [Lance pennon] 
Lance Pennon of Sir Robert Knolles. Knight Banneret c1360, England; Lance Pennon of a Pennoncier (or Knight Bachelor), England 1415; Badge Pennon, England c1460


LANCEOLATE
(adj) A term used that may be used to describe a rounded fly – but see ‘ogival’ (also ‘descate’, ‘guidon 3)’, ’fly’, ‘standard 4)’ and ‘heraldic standard’).

eample example Lesna, Poland
Examples (2); Flag of Lesna, Poland (Jarig Bakker)

Please note that the differences between “ovigal” and “lanceolate” are often very slight, and we suggest that both entries be consulted.


LANDESFARBEN
See 'national colours 2)' and 'state colours 3)' (also 'livery colours').

sample  sample  sample  sample
Landesfarben/National Colours, Germany; Landesfarben/State Colours, Brandenburg, Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt


LANGUAGE FLAGS
See ‘linguistic flags’.

language flag language flag
Amalgam/Language Flags for English and German


LANGUED
The heraldic term used when the tongue of the beast, if shown, is of different tincture than the rest of the body (see also ‘armed 2)’, ‘armed and langued’, ‘attired’, ‘beaked’, ‘membered’ and ‘tincture’).

Östergötland, Sweden Östergötland, Sweden Aalter, Belgium Aalter, Belgium Uri, Switzerland Uri, Switzerland
Arms and Flag of Östergötland, Sweden (fotw & Wikipedia); Arms and Flag of Aalter, Belgium (fotw & Wikipedia); Arms and Flag of Uri, Switzerland (fotw & Wikipedia)


LANYARD
1) In French military usage and in some others – and a translation of fourragère – the term for those cords and tassels that are worn on military uniforms to signify the award of a unit decoration, and may decorate that unit's military colour – see ‘cord 1)’ and ‘aiguillette’ (also ‘colour 2)’, ‘cravat 1)’, ‘jack of honour’, ‘lanyard pennant’ and ‘tassels’).
2) See ‘halyard’.
3) See ‘dress knot’ and its following note.

[fourangère]
(marlow white)


LANYARD PENNANT
In French Naval usage, the term – and a translation of flamme de fourragère - for a tapered pennant in various colours, charged with the Croix de Guerre and having a rounded (or lanceolate) fly, which is flown to indicate that a vessel has received citations for a certain number of military decorations (see also ‘cravat 1) and its following note, ‘fanion 3)’, ‘jack of honour’, ‘lanceolate’ , ‘lanyard 1)’ and ‘pennant 2)’).

[Lanyard pennants]
From left: 6 Citations for the Legion d’Honneur, 1914-18 (fotw); 4-5 Citations for the Médaille Militaire 1939-45 (fotw)


LAPEL FLAG (or PIN)
1) A metal or plastic flag – sometimes showing a badge or coat of arms below - worn on the dress or coat lapel as a patriotic or political symbol, originally characteristic of the former Soviet Union and of the United States, but now widely used elsewhere – a flag badge or flag pin.
2) A paper flag see ‘flag day 2)’.

[flag pin] [flag pin]
Two flag pins (worldflags4u)


LAPPED
A term sometimes incorrectly used to describe the leaves of a rose in place of the heraldic barbed – see ‘barbed’.

LARMES
In heraldry see ‘gouttes’.

[larmes] [gutty / larmes]
Flag and Arms of Samnanger, Norway (fotw)


LATE-GOTHIC (or LATE-GOTHIC-STYLE) SHIELD
The term sometimes used (albeit inaccurately) in vexillology to describe a round-bottomed or Spanish-style shield - but see note below (also ‘rectangular shield’, ‘shield 2)’ and ‘spanish-style shield’).

Please note that in vexillology the terms Gothic and late-Gothic appear to be used indiscriminately to describe either a pointed or a round-bottomed shield, and the Editors suggest therefore, that both these terms, if used at all, should be restricted to those with a pointed base.


LATIN CROSS
The heraldic term for a cross that does not usually extend to the edges of a shield, flag, panel or flag, but whose horizontal arm is shorter than its vertical and which is set above the centre line – a long cross (see also ‘Greek cross’ and ‘cross 2)’).

[example] [Latin cross] [Latin cross] [Latin cross] [Latin cross]
From Left: Latin Cross Example; Flag and Arms of Budinšćina, Croatia (Fame); Flag and Arms of Vila de Ala, Portugal (fotw)

Notes
1) Unless referring to a plain cross, this term should always accompanied by a further description, for example a “Latin cross treflee” as illustrated below.

[Latin cross] [Latin cross]
Arms and Flag of Negoslavci, Croatia (fotw)

2) In vexillogical terms a Latin cross throughout becomes an off-centred cross – see ‘off-centered cross 2)’ (also ‘throughout’).

[Latin cross] [Latin cross]
Arms and Flag of Thunstetten, Switzerland (Wikipedia & fotw)


LATIN CROSS BOTTONY
See ‘cross of victory’.

[Latin cross bottony] [Latin cross bottony]
Flag and Arms of Asturias, Spain (fotw & ICH)


LATIN CROSS THROUGHOUT
See ‘Latin cross’, and ‘off-centred cross 2)’ with its following note.

[Latin cross throughout] [Latin cross throughout]
Flag and Arms of Thunstetten, Switzerland (fotw & Wikipedia)


LATTICE
1) In vexillology a pattern of interlaced bars forming a (usually but not invariably) diagonal trellis.
2) In heraldry as above but see 'fretty'.

[lattice example] [lattice example] [lattice example] [lattice example]
Flag and Arms of Glinde, Germany (fotw); Flag and Arms of Haňovice, Czech Republic (fotw)


LAUNCHING FLAGS
Those flags flown from a vessel that is being launched prior to fitting out, and which in naval usage are generally (but not invariably) of a prescribed type and sequence (see also ‘dressing lines’ and ‘flag exchange’.

[launching flags]
Launching of HMS St Albans 1747, UK (portcities)


LAY UP (or LAYING UP) COLOURS (or COLORS)
(v) The ceremonial deposit of regimental, unit, service or national colours in a church, cathedral or museum when they are worn out, or when the regiment or military organisation is disbanded (see also ‘colour 2)’ and ‘colours 2)’.

LAYERED CROSS
A term that may be used to describe a cross whose horizontal arm differs in colour from its vertical as in the flag of the former Netherlands Antilles (see also ‘cross 1)’, ‘layered saltire’, ‘trinitarian cross’ and ‘tripartite’).

Netherland Antilles Belov, Czech Republic Obecuri layered cross
Flag of the Netherlands Antilles 1986 - 2010 (fotw); Flag of Bělov, Czech Republic (fotw); Flag of Obecuri, Spain (Ivan Sache); Burgee of the Royal Yacht Club of Tasmania (Clay Moss)

Notes
a)
This term has been introduced by the Editors as no established alternative could be found.
b) It should only be used in the description of flags as illustrated above, and does not include crosses which show two colours because of a fimbriation, or are divided in ways other than those shown.


LAYERED SALTIRE
A term that may be used to describe any saltire where an arm of one colour overlays (or apparently overlays) an arm of a different colour as in the examples given below (see also ‘layered cross’, ‘saltire’ and ‘tripartite’).

Rubi, Spain orni Cerekev, Czech Republic Alfarràs, Spain Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA
Flag of Rubi, Spain (fotw); Flag of Horní Cerekev, Czech Republic; City of Alfarràs, Spain (fotw); Flag of Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA (fotw)

Notes
a)
This term has been introduced by the Editors as no established alternative could be found.
b) It should only be used in the description of flags as illustrated above, and does not include saltires which show two colours because of a fimbriation, or are divided in ways other than those shown.


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