- MODEL FLAG
- A model of pattern and colour, often fixed by law, after which actual flags are
manufactured – an etalon or type flag (see also
‘official flag 1)’,
‘prototype flag 1)’,
Flag of Yukon Territory, Canada (Design Details Established by Model Flag) (fotw);
National Flag of Nigeria (Shade of Green defined by Model Flag)
- The heraldic term for a coat of arms, or a charge, which has replaced a design formerly in use –
see ‘ancient 1)’.
France Modern and France Ancient (fotw);
Austria Modern and Lower Austria Ancient (fotw)
- MOLINE CROSS
- In heraldry see ‘cross moline’.
Flag of Chapelle-lez-Herlaimont, Belgium (fotw)
- 1) Generically, the term used to describe a simple, often (but not exclusively)
circular design and the Japanese equivalent of a heraldic crest, badge or shield,
originally a personal or family symbol, they are now also common in Japanese civic and
provincial flags – but see 2) and the note below (also
‘daimyo flags’ and ‘hinomaru’).
2) Specifically, the term may be restricted to those Japanese flags showing a personal or
family badge – a kamon or mondokoro (see also ‘imperial
standard(s) 1)’ and ‘imperial
Flag of Aogashima Island, Japan (fotw); Flag of
Fukui, Japan (fotw); Flag of
Fukuoka, Japan (fotw); Standard of the
Imperial Family at Sea 1875 - 1889, Japan (fotw).
Please note with regard to 1) that the symbol on Japanese sub-national flags is
often a stylized version of the appropriate ideogram, and should be considered therefore,
the equivalent of a monogram or cipher rather than of a crest, badge or shield.
Flag of Ichikai, Japan (fotw)
- See ‘mon 2)’
Standard of The Empress of Japan (fotw)
- MONOCHROME (or MONOCHROMATIC)
- 1) A term used when the illustration of a flag, or of a coat of arms, is
rendered in tones or shades of a single colour, often (but by no means
invariably) black/grey on white (see also ‘hatching’).
2) The term also used when a flag uses only black and white in its design.
3) See ‘monocolour’.
Flag of Crikvenica, Croatia shown in Monochrome (fotw & CS);
Union Flag in Monochrome (flikr); National Flag of
Trengganu, Malaysia (fotw)
- MONOCOLOUR/MONOCOLOURED (or MONOCOLOR/MONOCOLORED)
- The term used when a flag is composed of a single colour – a unicolour or unicoloured – but is also sometimes employed to describe the field of a flag which is largely (but not entirely) plain - see ‘plain 2)’.
National Flag of Fujairah (now part of the UAE) (fotw); Flag of
Kedah, Malaysia (fotw)
- A motif formed by one or more letters, formerly often intertwined and now
more usually seen plain, as for example, on the royal standard of Belgium and
some presidential flags of France – a cipher or ligature (this last especially
if of only two letters) - but see ‘royal cypher 1)’.
Royal Standard of Belgium 1993 - 2013 (fotw); Presidential Flag of
France 1969–74 (fotw); Princely Standard of
- 1) In vexillology see ‘crescent 1)’ and
(also ‘waning or waxing moon’).
- 2) In heraldry the term used for a crescent that is placed with its horns pointing upward - but see notes below and
Flag and Arms of Čepin, Croatia (fotw); ; Flag of
Busswil bei Büren, Switzerland (fotw);
Arms and Flag of Schinznach Dorf, Switzerland (Wikipedia
a) With regard to 2), when a crescent moon is shown with its
horns towards the dexter it is termed increscent or increment, towards the sinister decrescent or
decrement, and towards the base inverted or reversed, when however, it is shown full (usually with a face) the term used is per complement.
b) A crescent with a face is occasionally seen in European heraldry.
Flag and Arms of Boswil, Switzerland (fotw &
- MORNING COLOURS (or COLORS)
- See ‘colours 5)’.
Naval Ensign, UK (fotw); Naval Ensign
South Africa 1952 – 1981 (fotw)
- MORSE CODE SIGNALLING WITH FLAGS
- 1) The current system of signalling with flags (or with the arms alone in the absence of
flags) using the Morse code, where if hand-held vertically (above the head) they signify
dots and if held horizontally (at shoulder level) dashes (see also
‘international code of signals’,
- 2) A system, now obsolete, of signalling with a single flag using the Morse code, where
short waves signified dots and long waves dashes - signalling by flag waving (see also
a) 1) is contained in the current (2005) Edition of the International Code
of Signals, and 2) had reasonably widespread use in the field prior to radio, both
between artillery batteries and forward observers, and for communication between naval and
army units ashore.
b) The 1937 (British) Admiralty Manual of Seamanship
gave the Morse code flags as plain blue, or white with a blue horizontal stripe (against
light or dark backgrounds respectively), but that other variants are known to have
- In heraldry see ‘masoned’.
and Arms of Aristau, Switzerland (fotw &
- A word or phrase, sometimes in a classical language, usually inscribed on
the scroll accompanying a coat of arms or state emblem, and originally derived
from the war cry (see also ‘Appendix IV’,
‘device 1)’ and
“Evil Be To Him Who Evil Thinks”, The Motto of the Order of the Garter in Old French, UK
- MOUNT (or MOUND)
- A heraldic term for the base of a shield, banner of arms or a flag that forms a curve,
and is generally (but not exclusively) tinctured vert in order to represent a grassed hillock –
a mound; see compartment (also ‘coupeau’, ‘tinctures’ and ‘vert’).
Flag of Wislikofen, Switzerland (fotw); Flag
and Arms of
Merenschwand, Switzerland (fotw and
Wikipedia); Flag and Arms of
Brdovec, Croatia (fotw)
- MOUNT OF COUPEAU (or COUPEAUX)
- In heraldry see ‘coupeau’ (also ‘mount’ above).
Flag and Arms of Kirchberg, Switzerland (fotw
- MOURNING BUNTING (or FAN)
- In US – particularly fire fighting – usage, a length of gathered decorative
fabric generally in black/purple (as a mourning version of the red-white-blue
national bunting), and draped between two anchor points to signify mourning for
the death of a colleague - see
‘bunting 2)’ (also
- An often (but not invariably) plain black flag of slightly varying design, displayed (sometimes
unofficially) by organisations and persons to signify mourning for people or events,
often (but not invariably) for political reasons – not to be confused with a
mourning pennant, pall
flag or funeral flag (see ‘funeral flags’,
‘mourning pennant’ below
and ‘pall flag’, also
and 'half mast a flag').
From left: Croatia (CS); Denmark (CS); Demark until 1743 (fotw); Vietnam (fotw)
- MOURNING PENNANT
- In Western European usage, a largely black triangular pennant of slightly varying design, flown from the mainmast
of vessels on inland waterways to signify mourning for the skipper or his spouse (see also
‘mourning flag’ above).
Catholic and Protestant Mourning Pennants (Litzke GmbH)
- MOURNING RIBBON
- See ‘draping’ (also
National Flag of Spain Draped with a Mourning Ribbon (Antonio Gutiérrez & Eugene Ipavec)