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Dictionary of Vexillology: C (Cross Patence - Crosstree)

Last modified: 2021-03-13 by rob raeside
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CROSS PATENCE
An early heraldic form of cross resembling a cross fleury with expanded arms - see ‘cross fleury’ (also the note below and ‘cross potent’)

Cross patence Cross patence
Arms and Flag of Abingdon-on-Thames, UK (fotw)

Please note that this is not to be confused with a cross potence/potent as referenced above.


CROSS PATRIARCHAL
A heraldic term for the cross of Lorraine - see ‘cross of Lorraine’.

Cross patriarchal Cross patriarchal
Arms and Flag of Roeselare, Belgium (Wikipedia & fotw)


CROSS PATTÉE (PATÉE, PATTY or PATY)
The alternative heraldic terms for a cross that may or may not extend to the outer edges of a shield, flag, canton or panel, whose arms are generally (but not exclusively) flat-ended but which are wider at their outer ends than they are in the centre. These arms can be straight-sided or curved throughout their length, or they can be straight-sided and parallel until being flared at their outer end – a cross formée, formé or formy, a patée, patty or paty cross, a formée, formé or formy cross, or an iron or Hanseatic, Hansa, cavalier or cavalier’s cross – but see ‘Maltese cross’ and ‘rounded cross’ (also ‘cross 2)’ and ‘Cross of the Order of the Knights of Christ’, ).

Cross pattee Cross pattee Cross pattee Cross pattee
Arms of Kocmyrzów-Luborzyca, Poland (fotw); House Flag of Christoph Lamprecht, Germany (fotw); Arms of Elbląg, Poland (fotw); Flag of Oensingen, Switzerland (fotw)


CROSS PATTÉE FOURCHE
In strict heraldic usage the term for a cross of eight points – see ‘cross of eight points’ and ‘cross fourché’ with their following notes (also ‘cross pattée’).

Cross pattee fourche Cross pattee fourche Cross pattee fourche Cross pattee fourche
Arms and Flag of Pontével, Portugal (fotw); Arms and Flag of Portel, Portugal (fotw)

Please note that this cross is often misidentified as a Maltese Cross –see ‘Maltese cross’.


CROSS PATTÉE ROUNDED
A heraldic term for a rounded cross - see ‘rounded cross’.

Cross pattee rounded Cross pattee rounded
Arms and Flag of Outeiro Major, Portugal (fotw)


CROSS PATTÉE VOIDED
1) In heraldry see ‘cross pattée’ and ‘voided’.
2) A term sometimes (incorrectly) applied to the cross on (for example) the air force roundel of Portugal – see ‘Cross of the Order of the Knights of Christ’ and its following note a).

Cross pattee voided Cross pattee voided
Flag of Cananéia, Brazil (fotw); Air Force Roundel of Portugal showing a Cross of the Knights of Christ (fotw)


CROSS POMEL (POMÉE, POMMETTY or POMMELLY)
The alternative heraldic terms for a cross which does not usually extend to the edges of a shield, flag, canton or panel, but whose arms finish in a roundel (see also ‘cross 2)’, ‘pommeled’ and ‘roundel 3))’

Cross pomel Cross pomel Cross d2574
Flag of Lagoa, Portugal (fotw); Arms and Flag of Santa Cruz, Portugal (fotw)


CROSS POTENT (or POTENCE)
The alternative heraldic terms for a cross which does not usually extend to the edges of a shield, flag, canton or panel, but whose arms terminate in a transverse bar – a cross potence, or a crutch or Teutonic Cross – but see ‘cross patence’ and its following note (also ‘cross 2)’, ‘cross-cantonée’ and ‘potent 2)’).

Cross potent Cross potent Cross potent Cross potent
From left: Cross-Potent example; Flag of Goumoëns-la-Ville, Switzerland (fotw); Arms of Fernão Ferro, Portugal (fotw); Flag of European Action (fotw)


CROSS POTENT CANTONÉE
The heraldic term for a ‘Jerusalem cross’ – see ‘cross potent’ and ‘cross-cantonée’.

Cross potent canotnee Cross potent canotnee
Flag and Arms of Niawier, The Netherlands (fotw & Wikipedia)


CROSS POTENT REBATED
The heraldic term for a swastika - see ‘swastika’ (also ‘cross potent’).

Cross potent rebated
Flag of Hirosaki, Japan (fotw)


CROSS QUARTERED
A translation of the Spanish term cruz cuartelada, and German "geviertes Kreuz" sometimes used in place of their (English) heraldic equivalents - see ‘cross counterchanged’ and ‘cross gyronny’ (also ‘cross counter-quartered 2)’).

Bormojus, Spain Palomares del Río, Spain
Flag of Bormujos, Spain (fotw); Flag of Palomares del Río, Spain (fotw)


CROSS QUARTER-PIERCED
In heraldry see ‘equipollé’ and its following note.

Ħ'Attard, Malta Ħ'Attard, Malta
Arms and Flag of Ħ'Attard, Malta (Wikipedia & fotw)


CROSS RAGULY
1) See ‘ragged cross’ and ‘raguly’.
2) The heraldic term also used for an upright cross (as opposed to a saltire) whose arms have any number of small regular projections set at an angle on both sides – see ‘raguly’.

Spanish naval flag 16th-17th century Arms of Colchester Gloucester, Canada
Spanish Naval Flag 16-17th C (fotw); Arms of Colchester, UK (Official Website); Flag of Gloucester, Canada (fotw)


CROSS TAU
The heraldic term for a cross that may or may not extend to the edges of a shield, flag, canton or panel, but in which the vertical arm does not extend above the horizontal thus creating a letter ‘T’ - a Cross of St Anthony or St Anthony’s Cross, and in some Christian denominations, an advent cross (see also ‘acorn cross’).

cross tau cross tau St Antönien-Ascharina, Switzerland St Antönien-Ascharina, Switzerland
From Left: Cross Tau Example; Flag of Lede, Belgium (fotw); Arms and Flag of St. Antönien-Ascharina, Switzerland (Wikipedia & fotw)


CROSS THROUGHOUT
A heraldic term that covers a standard cross - ‘cross 1)’.

Pontrieux, France Pontrieux, France
Flag of Chambéry, France (fotw & Wikipedia)


CROSS TREFOIL (or TREFLEE)
Alternate heraldic terms for a cross botonny - see ‘cross botonny’.

cross trefoil cross trefoil
Arms and Flag of the Church of Norway (Wikipedia & fotw)


CROSS-VOIDED
The heraldic term for a cross that may or may not reach the edges of a shield, banner of arms or flag and may be either closed or open-ended, but from which the centre is removed so that the field may be seen through it (see also ‘cross of athletics’ and ‘voided’).

cross voided cross voided cross voided cross voided
From Left: Cross-Voided Example; Flag of the Mouvement Normand, France (fotw); Flag and Arms of De Haan, Belgium (fotw & Wikipedia)

Notes
a) Unless referring to a plain cross, this term is always accompanied by a further description, for example "a cross pattée voided".
b) This term is sometimes (incorrectly used to describe a Cross of the Order of the Knights of Christ as illustrated below – see ‘cross of the Order of the Knights of Christ’.

cross voided
A banner of the Order of the Knights of Christ (fotw)


CROSSBOW
The image of a medieval weapon used (particularly in Continental Europe) for both war and hunting (see also ‘pavisade’ and its following note)..

crossbow crossbow crossbow crossbow crossbow
Flag and Arms of Kronoberg, Sweden (fotw & Wikipedia); Flag and Arms of Gerra, Switzerland (fotw & Wikipedia); Flag of Hildisrieden, Switzerland (fotw)


CROSSED BRANCHES
1) Short lengths of (occasionally differing) foliage, sometimes with flowers/fruit etc., and sometimes without, which intersect at their lowest point.
2) A phrase occasionally used in place of the more precise terms “garland” and “wreath” – see ‘garland 2)’ and ‘wreath 1)’.

crossed branches crossed branches crossed branches
Flag of 1848, Hungary (fotw); Arms of Pennsylvania, US (fotw); Detail from the National Flag of Turkmenistan (fotw)


CROSSLET
The heraldic term used when two or more miniature crosses appear on the same coat of arms – see ‘cross crosslet’ (also ‘coat of arms 2)’).

crosslet crosslet crosslet
Official Flag and Arms of Galicia, Spain (fotw); Flag of Òdena, Spain (fotw)


CROSSTREE
1) In largely US usage, a yard if fitted to a flag mast ashore (see also ‘yard’).
2) A cross bar attached near the top of an unstayed flagpole for the purpose of providing additional halyards to the one reeved at the truck (see also ‘reeve’, 'yard' and 'stayed mast').

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