Last modified: 2021-12-31 by valentin poposki
Keywords: respublika | oblasth | kraĭ | okrug | raĭon | avtonomniĭ okrug | avtonomnaâ oblasth | namestniĉestvo | guberniâ | uezd |
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Russia is divided in 89 entities, called collectively subjects of the federation (субъекты федерации | subwekty federacii, sing.субъект федерации | subwekt federacii). As an heritage from the soviet era, each of these fall into one of the following categories (followed by the number of units for each):
Immediately after 1991, the republics inherited (or
upgraded themselves to) the
status soviet ASSRs enjoyed, nominally autonomous
inside RSFSR — as opposed to the other divisions
at the same level. In 1994, though, this state of affairs changed and the
privilegies enjoyed by the republics were extended to all Russian first order
António Martins, 04 Apr 2000
Republics and the other federation subjects have equal rights, but
we see only the 21 flags of republics near the building of Federation Council
Victor Lomantsov, 06 May 2002
There are still differences between republics and other first order
divisions. For instance, while the former have almost always a
prezident), the latter have a governor
gubernator); while the former have a capital
(столица | stolica), the
latter have a center (центр | centr); the
word "republic" is always capitalized, while the other names are always
in lower case; etc. But these are skin deep differences and in practice the way
each region deals with the central government has little or nothing to do with
its category (again, except autonomous districts though including
Chukotka). And this, as said, includes flags.
António Martins, 04 Apr 2000
Of course the motive for Soviet differentiation of
ASSRs was the fact that these are regions inhabited by ethnic non-Russians
— though a severe critique about fairness and accuracy in the
implementation of this principle would fill a thick book (it did fill some,
actually). The same rationale applied to the autonomous districts and
António Martins, 04 Apr 2000
Although it is highly controversial, the world has seen a new country today,
Monday 17 March 2014. The parliament of the Crimea declared the
Republic of Crimea an independent state: The Republic of Crimea. Its
independence was immediately recognized by the Russian Federation. Time will
show if Crimea becomes part of the Russian Federation, as wished by the people
of Crimea who voted Sunday in a referendum to break off from
Ukraine and join
the Russian Federation.
Crimea is now in the list of independent states which are de facto independent, but not de jure. Among these countries are already: Kosovo, Transdnistria, Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
The flag of Crimea is the one which was adopted 24 September 1992. It contains the Russian colours white, red and blue, which was already a sign.
Jos Poels, 18 March 2014
After one day of "independence", Republic of Crimea and
part of the Russian Federation on 18 March 2014, while Russian and Crimean
leaders have signed treaty of accession of the Republic of Crimea and
in the Russian Federation.
"Since the adoption of the Russian Federation Republic of Crimea in structure of the Russian Federation two new entities - of the Republic of Crimea and the city of Federal importance Sevastopol - have been created," the text of the treaty reads. It is also stated that "starting from the day of accession, the people of Crimea and Sevastopol are considered as Russian citizens".
By the agreement, the transition period will be acting till January 1, 2015. During this time, both sides will resolve the issues of integration of the new subjects "in the economic, financial, credit and legal system of the Russian Federation".
The original Russian text of agreement and other related documents can be read at this page: http://crimea.cr/
Zoltan Horvath, 19 March 2014
Crimea.CR and Krym.KR are given as "совершенно неофициальный сайт"
(Completely Unofficial Site) being used by somebody to archive the actions of
the short lived "Independent" Crimea. "Proceeding from belief, what each
independent state has to leave in the Noosphere a historical trace in the form
of a site with the two-letter domain." (Google translated). They're not
purporting to actually use .cr for Crimea.
Dean McGee, 19 March 2014
Crimea flag added to line-up at Russian parliament. BBC story about Crimean
email@example.com, 24 March 2014
As of today (28th of June 2016) both Crimea and Sevastopol have been
integrated into Russia's Southern Federal District "for the purpose of
strengthening the operating efficiency of federal state bodies."
- Dmitry Peskov Kremlin spokesman
Kryštof Huk, 28 July 2018
As for second order divisions (subdivisions of first order divisions) in Russia, they fall on either of these categories:
Federal cities, though, do not have second order divisions, rather (for their size) being subdivided in third order divisions, just like second order divisions themselves. These are also of several types:
Seats of Village Councils may be:
In the Portuguese newspaper Público of May 19 there’s
a report on a division of Russia in 7 large regions, each with an appointed
representative of the central power, designed to control the subjects of the
federation. [See list and
map.] I suppose these regions have no flags, at least
Jorge Candeias, 26 May 2000
At first glance, these seem to coincide with the economic regions, but there are a lot of differences:
Crimea Federal District (Russian: Крымский
федеральный округ) was established on March 21, 2014 after the accession of
Crimea to the Russian Federation. It became one of the nine federal districts of
Russia. The district has two federal subjects, it includes the
Republic of Crimea and the federal city of
Sevastopol, which are both internationally recognized
as a part of Ukraine. The administrative center of the federal district is
Source: http://top.rbc.ru/politics/21/03/2014/912755.shtml (in Russian)
Zoltan Horvath, 24 March 2014
There are also the economic regions
êkonomiĉeskiĭ raĭon) [See
list], which are not administrative divisions
and do not have flags. There are 11 of them, and their borderlines follow
the limits of the first order divisions. These regions are almost identical
to those of the soviet era, the only differences
being the new Northern economic region (including
Nenetsia, Vologda Region,
Arkhangelsk Region and Murmansk
Region) carved out from the Northwestern economic region, and the joining
to the Northwestern economic region of Kaliningrad
Region. I am not sure whether these regions will be superseded by the
recently approved federal districts.
António Martins, 04 Apr 2000 and 01 Jun 2001
See also: Historical coats of arms of Russian subdivisions
In Russian Empire the main and basic
administrative and territorial unit the Уезд was.
In 18 century Uezds have been incorporated into Guberniyas.
In 1920th years of Guberniyas have been
transformed into Krays and regions (Oblast) and Uezds
have been divided into Rayons (analog for county). Some Rayons
were made Okrug (analog for district). In 1930th years Okrugs
have been abolished, except for national Okrugs and
special Okrugs. The Okrugs is an administrative-territorial
unit, which is more important, than Rayon. One Okrug includes
Mikhail Revnivtsev, 07 Oct 2005
Possible translations to English:
and "губерния" were two
names of one thing. Before 1799 many of gubernias were known as
namestnichestvo; the head of administration was namestnik.
It was official name of the administrative parts of Russia. The citizens
of XVIII century thought that "namestnichestvo" is a “more
Russian” word. In 1799 czar Pavel I renamed all
namestnichestvos to guberniya and namestniks to
gubernator (governor). Not all guberniyas were
namestnichestvo in the past. For example, Moscow guberniya was
"guberniya" always (from 1708).
Victor Lomantsov, 15 Oct 2001
Some former autonomous units upgraded themselves to full “sovereignship” inside the Fussian Rederation since 1991:
This means that only Adygeya,
Jewish Autonomous Region and
Chukotka changed their dependent status (the two
latter not having changed their denominations, which is most confusing).
All other areas (Aghin Buriatia,
Komia, Taymyr, Ust-Ord
Buriatia and Yamal) were and remain dependent
from another federation subject, though all 89 of them are considered to be
federation subjects of their own (which is also most confusing).
António Martins, 29 May 2000
See also: Flags on Russian stamps
I think that stamps issued by subnational entities within Russia are mostly
official, though issued exclusively as philatelic items, and thus quite seldom
used to post letters and parcels. And if so they’re mint in Moscow and
are almost surely not available on the locations they supposedly refer to,
like Australian Antarctica stamps and so on.
António Martins, 07 Nov 2000