Last modified: 2019-10-14 by ivan sache
Keywords: municipality |
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Each Turkish province (il) is divided in districts (ilçe). Each district includes at least one district municipality, and may include sub-district municipalities. The two municipal levels are called belediyesi.
The most populated towns (more than 750,000 inhabitants) are organized as metropolitan municipalities (büyükşehir belediyesi), originally encompassing urban and rural districts. The definition of metropolitan municipalities was extended to all provinces with more than 750,000 inhabitants; the former urban and rural districts were maintained as districts, while the former sub-district municipalities were abolished.
Ivan Sache, 2 July 2015
Union of Municipalities of Turkey
Flag of TBB, current and former versions - Images by Tomislav Šipek, 7 February 2018
The flag of TBB (photo) is white with the organization's emblem. The fomer flag of TBB was white with the organization former's emblem.Tomislav Šipek, 7 February 2018
Union of Turkish World Municipalities
Flag of TDB - Image by Tomislav Šipek, 7 February 2018
TDBB (website) was established by a Decree published on 13 November 2003 in the Turkish official gazette, No. 25,313.
The founding members of TDBB, listed in Chapter 4 of the organization's Charter are the municipalities of Pendik (İstanbul), Zeytinburnu (İstanbul), Adalar (İstanbul), Bayrampaşa (İstanbul), Kartal (İstanbul), Çavuşbaşı (İstanbul, no longer a municipality), Düzce, Hendek (Sakarya), Hayrat (Trabzon), and İznik (Bursa).
TDBB, headquartered in İstanbul, groups 1,140 municipalities from 28 countries (list): Kyrgyzstan (485), Azerbaijan (291), Turkey (149), Mongolia (27), Kazakhstan (28), Bosnia and Herzegovina (23), Northern Cyprus (23), Gagauzia (Moldova; 18), Albania (13), Macedonia (12), Daghestan (Russia; 9), Palestine (9), Moldova (7), Kosovo (4), Serbia (4), Somalia (4), Bulgaria (3), Lebanon (3), Iraq (2), Montenegro (2), Pakistan (2), Romania (2), Tatarstan (Russia; 2), Ukraine (2), Bashkortostan (Russia; 1), Egypt (1), Hungary (1), and Kenya (1).
Article 3 of the TDBB Charter defines its objectives as follows:
Taking the common culture and civilization heritage of Turkish World into consideration, and with the aim of sharing information, manners and dual experience in a brotherly attitude; 1. To protect the historical and cultural heritage,
2. To develop cooperation especially in economic, technical, social and cultural areas,
3. To determine the problems and solutions of urban and urban management, to search for common solutions and apply practice studies,
4. To make, to have made and to support the studies for searching and developing new models on urban management and urban culture.
The flag of TDBB (photo, photo,
photo) is white with the organizaition's emblem.
The logo of TDBB (corporate identity manual) is made of an emblem and the organization's name, written in Turkish, English and Russian. The flag features the emblem only.
The emblem is made of a blue rectangle (15 units x 24 units), framed by
a white border (1.5 unit) outlined in blue. The rectangle is charged
with the white acronym "TDBB" (3 units x 11 units) and a white
half-globe (3.5 units x 8 units). "TDBB" is written in Helvetica font.
The blue shade is specified as follows:
Pantone 280c CMYK 100-72-0-18 RGB 0-73-144Tomislav Šipek, 7 February 2018
Association of Mayors of Turkey
Flag of BBB - Image by Tomislav Šipek, 7 February 2018
The flag of BBB (photo) is white with the organization's emblem.Tomislav Šipek, 7 February 2018
The City Councils - some English-speaking scholars prefer to call them
City Assemblies to prevent confusion with Municipal Councils - are
prescribed in Article 76 of Law No. 5,393 on Municipalities, adopted on
3 July 2005 and published on 13 July 2005 in the Turkish official gazette.
The law aims at increasing the duties of the City Councils that had been established in January 2000 as part of "The Implementation of the Local Agenda 21 in Turkey" program. In the law, consideration of the public opinion in local decisions, improving the mechanisms to ensure the inclusion of the public in the administrative processes and the arrangements that will allow ensuring the cooperation between the corporations has come to the foreground.
The Order on City Councils, promulgated by Law No. 26,313 published on 8
October 2016 in the Turkish official gazette, united the assemblies
established within the body of the Local Agenda 21 under the umbrella of
the City Councils.
Article 4 of the Order defines the City Council as "governance mechanisms with democratic structures where the central government, the local government, professional organizations in the nature of public institutions and the civil society meet with partnership understanding, in the framework of citizenship law; where the development priorities, problems, vision of the city are determined on the basis of sustainable development principles, discussed, solutions improved, common sense and compromise are essential".
City Councils offer significant opportunities for the local people to participate in the decision making processes of the cities; several people, however, appear not to be even aware of the existence of he Councils, probably because they are relatively recent institutions, which makes their mechanisms repeating representative democracy.
[Elif Karakurt Tosun & Enes Battal Keskin. 2015. City councils as a means of local participation in Turkey during the EU membership process: The investigation of the awareness of the Bursa City Council. Yönetim ve Ekonomi Araştırmaları Dergisi 13:3, 362-376]
Ivan Sache, 24 November 2018