Last modified: 2023-09-02 by rick wyatt
Keywords: united states | confederate | csa | army of tennessee pattern |
Links: FOTW homepage | search | disclaimer and copyright | write us | mirrors
On this page:
There were six (or more) different basic design styles of Confederate Army Military Flags. As the flex and flow of military necessity effected the organization and reorganization of Confederate forces, so did the designs of their flags. A couple of examples of this would be in the Vicksburg Defense a subgroup of flags came into being that featured white crosses instead of blue, in Missouri and Louisiana a design subgroup with a Christian Cross design became popular. Faced with this we will divide them into groups. Some of these groups will be the Stars and Bars Pattern, the St. Andrews Cross Pattern (Southern Cross with a white flag border), the Army of Tennessee Pattern (Southern Cross without a white flag border), the Van Dorn Pattern, the Hardee Pattern, and the Polk Pattern. The last three are named for the Confederate Commanders who first designed (or had designed) the basic Regimental flag design to be used by the units under their command.
12 Star example
13 Star example
12 Star Variant example
The Army of Tennessee Pattern, or "C" battle flag pattern, was ordered by General Joseph Johnston in an attempt to standardize the flags carried by the Western Army. This rectangular design with no borders was based on the Army of Northern Virginia battle flag. The Army of Tennessee pattern battle flag was put into use in January of 1864 late in the war. It used twelve to thirteen white stars placed on a blue St. Andrew's cross on a red flag without border. This being the south naturally there were exceptions, the 1st Floreida Infantry battle flag was an example of this, they elongated their flag and surrounded with a very thick white border. The Second Confederate Naval Jack might also be said to use this Tennessee Pattern. Not surprising since most of their ships were bottled up in the Mississippi River basin, the Gulf of Mexico, and southern ports.
Pete Loeser, 26 August 2023
image by Pete Loeser, 30 August 2023
Based on this photo.
The 3rd Tennessee Infantry Regiment Volunteers were raised in the counties of Giles, Lewis, Hickman, Maury, Williamson, and Lawrence in 1861. THeir commanding officer was Colonel Calvin J. Clack. In February of 1862 they were sent to Fort Donelson where, after losing 88 men killed or wounded of their 750, they were forced to surrender when the fort's 12,000-man garrison surrendered unconditionally to the forces of Union General Ulysses S. Grant. After the prisoners were exchanged, the regiment was reorganized and fought at the Battles of Chickasaw Bayou, Raymond, and Jackson, eventually becoming part of the Army of Tennessee. It went on to participate in many battles from Chickamauga to Atlanta, moved with Hood to Tennessee, and ended the war in North Carolina. By December of 1864 the Regiment only had 12 of its original men left. They became part of the forces included in the surrender on April 26, 1865.
Source: National Park Service: 3rd Regiment, Tennessee Infantry (Clack's Regiment).
Pete Loeser, 26 August 2023