This page is part of © FOTW Flags Of The World website


Republic of Malta, Repubblika ta' Malta

Last modified: 2023-09-09 by rob raeside
Keywords: malta | cross: george cross | coat of arms: per pale (white-red) | george cross | bandalora | flag of convenience |
Links: FOTW homepage | search | disclaimer and copyright | write us | mirrors

[Malta] 2:3 image by António Martins
Flag adopted 21st September 1964, coat-of-arms adopted 28th October 1988

See also:

See also:

Other sites:


The Maltese civil flag and war ensign is a white and red per pale flag in the ratio 2:3, augmented by a depiction of the British George Cross —since 1942, when Malta was awarded this singular honour following its gallant defence against the Axis powers in World War Two— fimbriated (edged) in red. This flag is flown on all public buildings, police stations, vessels belonging to the Armed Forces of Malta, on the vehicle used by the Prime Minister, and Malta's ambassadors. In Malta it is frequently flown by any one, without restriction, as a sign of loyalty, and abroad by the Maltese emigrant communities, particularly in Australia, Canada and the United States.
Adrian Strickland
[str], 30 November 2000

The protocol manual for the London 2012 Olympics (Flags and Anthems Manual London 2012) provides recommendations for national flag designs. Each NOC was sent an image of the flag, including the PMS shades, for their approval by LOCOG. Once this was obtained, LOCOG produced a 60 x 90 cm version of the flag for further approval. So, while these specs may not be the official, government, version of each flag, they are certainly what the NOC believed the flag to be.
For Malta: PMS 430 grey, 432 grey, 186 red. The vertical flag is simply the horizontal version turned 90 degrees clockwise, but the cross remains in the top left corner.
Ian Sumner, 11 October 2012


According to tradition the origin of the flag has various sources, however the most credible but not in any way verified (as yet) is the two colours, white/red, were originally squares, giving a ratio of 1:2. And these two squares come from the last two squares of the chequered flag of the Norman family of Hauteville. The Hautevilles (or Altavilla as they are called in nearby Sicily) were the Norman family that under Count Roger, conquered Sicily (and in 1090 also Malta). Shields of arms carved in wood and stone may be found all over Malta dating from before the arrival of the Knights of Saint John, notwithstanding the latter's domination of these islands and their continuous erosion of the rights of the Maltese, during their 250 years of rule here.

The George Cross first appeared (on 28th December 1943) on a blue canton and this was the design until independence on 21st September 1964, when the arms and flag were changed again. This time the blue canton was removed and substituted by a narrow fimbriation or fringe of red.
Adrian Strickland
[str], 28 March 1997

Legend has it that the original white and red come from Count Roger's flag which was chequered in white and red and before he left Malta he cut out a corner and gave it to the Maltese.
Philip Serracino Inglott
, 2 December 1998

Recognition of Maltese white/red flag.
9 November 1954. Queen Elizabeth II approved the traditional red and white flag as an official flag of Malta. No formal announcement was made since the Maltese believed that the flag already had recognition in view of the number of ad hoc occasions on which it had been used. [National Archives (PRO) ADM 1/25025.]
David Prothero, 14 July 2005

The bi-colour was traditional to Malta and in unofficial use by the civil population both before and after WWII. That it was made official by Her Majesty in 1954 and that a version showing the St George Cross on a blue canton (if not general) was used on at least one formal occasion because we now have a photo to prove it.
Christopher Southworth, 15 October 2008

Flag Days in Malta

The Maltese Independence Day is held on September 21. The nation's independence was granted in 1964. According to the Constitution of 1964, Malta became a parliamentary democracy in the Commonwealth of Nations, the association of nations that formed part of the British Empire. This is celebrated as Independence Day or Jum l-Indipendenza in Maltese.

Eventually Malta became a Republic on December 13, 1974 (which is called Republic Day), and gained absolute autonomy on March 31, 1979 (which is called Freedom Day).
John Hall, 21 September 2006

Flag Variants

All three versions of this flag [plain white-red, with George Cross on blue canton, with George Cross alone] may be found flying these days. Although the predominant one is the current official one, some elements, mainly in the southern part of the island still fly the undefaced version.
Adrian Strickland
[str], 28 March 1997

Courtesy Flag

The Maltese civil flag (...) is also the correct flag for merchantmen to fly as a courtesy flag when arriving in Malta's ports.
Adrian Strickland
[str], 30 November 2000

The Maltese Shipping Directorate issued the following Merchant Shipping Directive no. 29 regarding the national colours of Maltese ships, according to this website:

(...) The Merchant flag is not to be used as a courtesy flag.
The following is taken from the Maltese Shipping Directorate.
MSD Notice No. 29


The Merchant Shipping Directorate draws attention to the relative provisions of the Merchant Shipping Act regarding the home port and national colours of Maltese ships.
Section 5 of the Act provides that the home port of every Maltese ship shall be Valletta.
Section 15 further provides that the ship's name shall be marked on each of her bows and that the name and the name of the home port shall be marked on the stern, on a dark ground in white or yellow letters or on a light ground in black letters, such letters to be of a length of not less than ten centimetres and of proportionate breadth. Pleasure yachts are not required to have the name marked on the bows.
Furthermore, in terms of section 72 of the Act the flag as set out hereunder is declared as the proper national colours for all Maltese ships. The merchant flag of Malta consists of a red field bordered in white, with a Maltese Cross at its centre.
It is important that owners and masters of Malta flag vessels ensure that only the home port Valletta and the national colours shown hereunder are marked and hoisted on Maltese vessels. The Merchant flag is not to be used as a courtesy flag.
End of document.

Thus, Malta is an exception to the usual practice of using the 'merchant flag' for the courtesy flag.
James T. Liston, 16 April 2005


[Coat-of-Arms (Malta)]
from the Maltese Government website, modified by António Martins

From the Maltese Government Official Website:

Coat of Arms: The emblem of Malta is described by the Emblem and Public Seal of Malta Act 1975 as a shield showing an heraldic representation of the National Flag of Malta; above the shield a mural crown in gold with a sally port and eight turrets (five only being visible) representing the fortifications of Malta and denoting a City State; and around the shield a wreath of two branches: the dexter of Olive, the sinister of Palm, symbols of peace and traditionally associated with Malta, all in their proper colours, tied at base with a white ribbon, backed red and upon which are written the words Repubblika ta' Malta [Republic of Malta] in capital letters in black.

Other Flags

At the Sovereign and Military Order of Malta embassy in Valetta and at many buildings with historical connections to the Knights I saw the white St. George cross on red field of the order.
Norman Martin
, 26 November 2000

Various national institutions, such as the Central Bank, The Stock Exchange, other banks and commercial entities fly their own flags, sometimes these will be banners of their arms, often they are unfortunately paper flags designed by publicity agents unaware of the essentials of good flag design. The Chamber of Commerce, Federation of Industry, Retailers Associations and similar organisations also have their own flags.

Each town or village will have one or more band-clubs. These have been the focus of social life since the middle of 19th century and village life still revolves around them. They are invariably very conscious of their status. They are centrally located and usually have a very tall flag-pole on the roof and in the centre of the facade of the club house. Each club has an array of flags including several different versions of the band club flag.

Additionally there will be a number of flags relating to the club which are carried in procession on feast days and a very special type of gonfanon, heavily embroidered in gold and silver thread, which seldom if ever leaves the club premises. Called Bandalora this flag represents the club itself, rather like Regimental Colours in the military. New bandalori are made on special occasions, such as the centenary of the foundation of a club.

Each village will also have a number of confraternities, formerly drawn from men of the same profession or trade, rather like a guild. These are pious associations, that participate in the religious feasts and have their own type of flags. These are very large heavy long pointed flags, usually made of silk. They are heavily embroidered in gold and silver thread with the symbols of the confraternity. They carried in procession on tall silver flag-poles and escorted by similar silver poles carrying lanterns.

Sports clubs also fly their own flags on their premises, football and bowls being the sports most frequently represented.

The many types of flags quoted above constitute the absolute minority of flags actually flown in the Maltese islands. The vast majority are flown by individuals, and on a village feast day, when a pleasant north westerly wind is blowing, the entire skyline of a village will form one long line of colour, the individual flags overlapping each other, snapping and flapping in the breeze.
Adrian Strickland
[str], 30 November 2000