Last modified: 2021-07-10 by ivan sache
Keywords: french guiana | guyane |
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French national flag - Image by Željko Heimer, 22 September 2001
Bordering countries: Brazil (state of Amapá), Suriname
Area: 83,846 km2
Population (2018): 276,128 inhabitants
Subdivisions: 2 arrondissements, 22 municipalities.
French Guiana is officially known as the Collectivité Territoriale de Guyane (CTG), established on 1 January 2016.
The status of Guyane is prescribed by Law No. 884, adopted on 27 July 2011 and published the next day in the French official gazette, No. 173, p. 12,821 (text).
To Part 7 of the General Code of Territorial Collectivities shall be added Book I, written as follows:
Book I. Territorial Collectivity of Guyane.
Title 1. General prescriptions.
Article L 7111-1. Guyane forms a Territorial Collectivity of the Republic, as prescribed by Article 73 of the Constitution, which exercizes the competences assigned to an Overseas Department and to an Overseas Region, as well as all competences granted by the Law to account for its specific characteristics and constraints.
Article L 7111-2. The Territorial Collectivity of Guyane succeeds the Department of Guyane and Region Guyane in all their rights and duties.
Article L 7121-1 prescribes the organs of the Territorial Collectivity of Guyane as the Assembly of Guyane [made of 51 members] and its President, assisted by the Economical, Social, Environmental, Cultural and Educational Council.
On 10 January 2010, the update of the status of French Guiana to an Overseas Collectivity was rejected by referendum. The official results (Ministry of Overseas ) are:
Registered voters 67,460 Actual voters 32,486 Valid ballots 31,729 Voter turnout 48.16% Yes 9,448 29.78% No 22,281 70.22%
The same day, a similar proposal was also rejected in Martinique.
On 25 January 2010, the merging of the General Council and of the Regional Council to form a single collectivity (without changing the status of DOM) was approved by referendum. The official results (Ministry of Overseas) are:
Registered voters 67,258 Actual voters 18,519 Valid ballots 17,241 Voter turnout 27.42% Yes 9,912 57.49% No 7,329 42.51%
The same day, a similar proposal was also accepted in Martinique.
Ivan Sache, 5 June 2016
The national flag in French Guiana is the French national flag.
Pascal Vagnat, 31 January 2010
Flag of the CTG - Image by Ivan Sache, 5 June 2016
The flag of the Territorial Collectivity of Guyane is white with the collectivity's logo.
The Territorial Collectivity of Guyane was inaugurated on 18 December 2015 in Cayenne ((photos), Rodolphe Alexandre being elected its first President. The flag was inaugurated the same day; flags were hoisted on the stand behind the speaker as follows, from viewer's left to right: European Union, Suriname, France, Brazil, Guyana, and CTG.
The logo of the Territorial Collectivity of Guyane was unveiled on 29 April 2015. A call for proposals yielded 97 submissions. Along the five submissions by an ad hoc commission, Carole Mathée's design was selected by a public vote. The four other finalists were Mathieu de Rivoyre, Pierre-Laurent Kichenama, Thierry Chantel, and Morgane Gonidou.
Carole Mathée explained the logo as follows (Territorial Collectivity of Guyana):
Guyane, the creative spirit.
The logo represents Guyane as a whole, proud of its major assets, which are the base of its development. The new logo is an evolution of the two logos of the former collectivities (colours). The whole is self-styled dynamic and serious. Adaptable ad libitum for the sake of communication (logo, poster, t-shirt, website, actions...), the logo can also evolve in the next decades, being easy to transform.
The map of Guyane has been kept for geographical identification. The outline has been stylized to represent opening to the future, as well as the potential, skills, projects and ambitions of Guyane.
The stylized bow and arrows, ready for launching, are a nod in the direction of the spatial industry. Each of them represents assets required for projects and action.
These elements refer to Amerindian peoples, the first inhabitants of the territory who aspire to recognition. The logo is a tribute to their history and aspiration, as well as to their willingness of empowerment. The black writing, simple and clear, names the collectivity, highlighting the word "Guyane".
The set of colours alludes to the Tembé art*, as a reference to the Maroons, other autochthonous peoples aspiring to visibility.
Green (map and bow) represents the exceptional natural environment, protective, provided its intrinsic properties are preserved, and its services (agriculture, leisure, forestry, health, well-fare...).
Red represents the men and women living on the territory, as the first resource (knowledge, generations, culture, traditions, diversity, sustainable responsibility) of a true land of welcome, generous thanks to its living environment.
Blue represents water of any kind (sea, rivers, rain, water production...) as a nourishing resource (fishing, leisure, electricity production...). Yellow represents the underground resources, either exploited or potential (gold washers, traditions...).
Black represents the promising resources for the future, such as oil (technological innovation, economical development, skills...).
*Tembé is the sculpture art developed by the Boshinengue, the Maroons of Guyana. Tembé is better known as Boni art, named for one of the six Maroon tribes that fled Suriname to Guyane, crossing river Moroni, in 1713-1715: Saramaca, Hatawai, Quinti-Matanai, Boni (Aloukou), Paramaca and Aucaner (aka Youca or N'Djuka). Their specific art was recognized and popularized by the ethnologists Richard and Sally Price, the geographer Jean Hurault and the historian of Guyana Pierre Servin. While some scholars consider the Tembé art as locally borne in the 19th century, Pierre Servin highlighted the influence of the Afro-Egyptian art.
The master of Tembé is Antoine Aouegui, aka Lamoraille (b. 1944). active since 1983 and president of the Mama Bobi association, which aims at the preservation of Tembé as an art, beyond folklore.
[Marie-Isabelle Merle des Isles. Les symboles de l'art tembé]
Ivan Sache, 5 June 2016
Flag of Region Guyane - Image by Ivan Sache, 31 January 2010
The flag of Region Guyane (photo, photo) was white with the logo of the Region in the middle.
The logo of the Region is explained as follows (Regional Council):
- The upper blue field symbolizes new technologies (Kourou), the yellow star representing the future of the Region;
- The green middle field symbolizes the local fauna and flora;
- The human silhouette and the pirogue symbolize the local culture and history;
- The waves symbolize rivers and communication.
Pascal Vagnat & Ivan Sache, 31 January 2010
Former flag of Region Guyane - Image by Olivier Touzeau, 23 October 2017
The former flag of Region Guyane, used not later than 2002, was white with the former logo of the Region.
Olivier Touzeau, 23 October 2017
Department of Guyane
Flags of the former Department of French Guiana - Image by Ivan Sache, 25 October 2009
The General Council of French Guiana has adopted unanimuously on 29
January 2010 a flag for the department. Unsurprisingly, this is the
flag diagonally divided green-yellow with tyhe red star of the
middle, until now the official flag of the UTG workers' union.
"The upper green triangle symbolizes forest while the lower triangle, yellow like gold, represents the numerous underground resources. In the middle, the five-pointed red star symbolizes the socialist orientation of the country". According to the ad hoc commission, the meaning of the star should be modified to "the blood in the middle".
Alain Tien-Liong, President of the General Council, said that "the flag should be hoisted together with the French and European Union flags".
[General Council of Guyane, 29 January 2010]
According to an opponent to the flag, the session of the General Council took actually place on 22 January 2010; three General Councillors were not present, all from the opposition group (right), but another five opposition councillors voted for the flag together with the majority.
Flags of the former General Council of French Guiana - Image by Ivan Sache, 5 June 2016
The flag of the former General Council of Guyane (photo) was white with the General Council's logo. The logo features a yellow sun disc, a green map of Guyana outlined by a yellow border ending with an arrow, the white letters "CG", and the writing "CONSEIL GENERAL" (black) / "Guyane" (green, in cursive font).
Ivan Sache & Pascal Vagnat, 5 June 2016