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Mexico

United Mexican States [Estados Unidos Mexicanos] / [México]

Last modified: 2014-03-08 by juan manuel gabino villascán
Keywords: mexico | bandera nacional | national flag | guarantee | states | trigarante | arms | construction sheet | sheet | eagle | snake | prickly pear | cactus | stone | water | lake |
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[National flag of Mexico, by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán] 4:7
[National flag and ensign]
    [Mexico - Coat of arms]
by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, 10 November 2012
Coat of arms provided by the National
Museum of History [MNH], Mexico, 31 October 2012

    Flag and coat of arms adopted: September 16, 1968; by Decree published in the Diario Oficial de la Federación [DOF] of August 17, 1968
    Flag and coat of arms confirmed: February 24, 1984; by Decree published in DOF of February 8, 1984
    Use on land: Civil, state and war flag
    Use at sea: Civil, state and naval ensign
    Colors: As for 2013, there is not official shades on both the flag and the coat of arms; the colors used here are those proposed by the FOTW colour guide
    Green
    White
    Red
    [X] Coat of arms: Natural colors | Gold | Gold and silver | Gold, silver and others
    Risk of confusion with: Italy, Ireland

  • Official name: Mexican United States [Estados Unidos Mexicanos]
  • Short-form name: Mexico [México]
  • Status: Internationally recognized, independent and sovereign state
  • Area: 1'964,375 km2
  • Location: North America
  • Neighboring countries United States of America (N), Guatemala and Belize (SE)
  • Government Type: Federal democratic representative republic [Constitución Política: Artículo 40]
  • Chief of State and Head of Government: President of the United Mexican States
  • Capital: Mexico City [Ciudad de México, Distrito Federal]
  • Local divisions: 31 states, and one federal district
  • Official language: Spanish [español]
  • Other national languages: 68 national languages, among them: Nahuatl, Mayan, Zapotec, Mixtec, Otomi, Tzeltal, Tzotzil, Totonac
  • Religion: Cristianity: mostly Catholicism
  • Member of: UNO, UN specialized bodies and agencies, World Trade Organization (WTO), World Bank, International Monetary Found (IMF), Organization of American States (OEA/OAE), APEC, Organization for Economical Cooperation and Development (OCDE/OEDC), Iternational Olympic Committee (COI/OIC), FIFA, FIBA, IAAF, FIVA, among others
  • Currency: Mexican Peso [Peso mexicano]: MXN
  • ISO Code: MX / MEX / 484
  • FIPS 10-4 Code: MX
  • MARC Code: n-mx
  • IOC Code: MEX
  • FIFA Code: MEX

See also:

Description

[Construction sheet of the National flag of Mexico 
by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán]
By Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, November 10, 2012
Coat of arms by [MNH], 31 October 2012

The Ley sobre el Escudo, la Bandera y el Himno Nacionales [Act on the National Coat of Arms, Flag and Anthem] states [gob84]:

Art. 3rd: The National Flag is a rectangle divided into three equal vertical stripes colored in the following order: from hoist to fly: green, white, and red. Centered in the white stripe, the National Coat of Arms with a diameter of three fourths of the white stripe's width. The Flag is proportioned four to seven. It could carry a rope or a cravat of the same colors bellow the truck.

A sample of the National Flag, authenticated by the Three Union Powers representatives, will remain preserved in the Archivo General de la Nación [National Archive], while other in the Museo Nacional de Historia [National Museum of History].

Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, August 31, 2001.


So far, there is no official statement about the color shades of the Mexican flag. There exist many official corporate manuals published by a number of government bodies using green, white and red in a variety of shades, none of them to be used on flags. The following color shades are those proposed only to be used on flags.

Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, August 31, 2001.

Organization Pantone CMYK RGB Contributor


Secretaría de Gobernación (SEGOB)   3425 C   n/a   0, 107, 71   1
  186 C   n/a   206, 17, 38  

Secretaría de Gobernación (SEGOB)   348 C   n/a   n/a   2
  186 C   n/a   n/a  

Secretaría de la Defensa Nacional
  5535   n/a   n/a   3
  1805   n/a   n/a  

Olympic Games Athens 2004 and
Beijing 2008
  355   n/a   n/a   4, 5
  032   n/a   n/a  

Olympic Games London 2012   3425   n/a   n/a   6
  186   n/a   n/a  

Du Payrat, Album des Pavillons, 2000   347 C   100, 0, 80, 10       7
  032 C
  0, 90, 90, 0      

Juan Manuel Gabino's personal observations   3435 C   90, 0, 76, 84   1, 70, 48   8
  485 C
  0, 100, 100, 0   255, 0, 0  

For this page and most of Mexico FOTW pages, the FOTW colour guide is used   n/a   n/a   0, 51, 0   9
  n/a   n/a   255, 0, 0  

Organization Pantone CMYK RGB Contributor


  • 1Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, from [Secretaría de Gobernación, personal communication], March 2001.
  • 2Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, from [Secretaría de Gobernación, personal communication], October 2012.
  • 3Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, from [Sdnxx], 6 November 2010.
  • 4Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, from [Aoc04], 16 November 2012.
  • 5Unknown, from [Boc08],
  • 6Ian Sumner, from [Loc12], 11 October 2012.
  • 7Michael Faul, from [Pay00], 25 October 2012.
  • 8Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, [personal observations], 4 February 2013.
  • 9FOTW colour guide, last visited on 24 February 2014.


    Reverse side of the flag


    [Alternate version of the reverse side of the Mexican flag. By Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán]
    by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, November 10, 2012
    Coat of arms by [MNH], 31 October 2012
    4:7
    [Sinister hoist - the flag is intended to be viewed with the staff on the right]
      [Alternate version of the reverse side of the Mexican flag. By Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán]
    by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, 29 March, 2013
    4:7
    [Sinister hoist - the flag is intended to be viewed with the staff on the right]


    Representatives of the Partido Acción Nacional proposed:

    The current Act, approved on February 24th., 1984, contains a serious effort to order and pinpoint concepts to regulate both the features and the adequate and respectful use of the National Coat-of-arms, Flag and Anthem. However, some aspects necessary to that aim were not adequately contemplated.

    Article 2 describes the Coat of Arms, considering the lefthand profile of the eagle alone, with its left talon on the nopal and holding with the right one and its beak a serpent.

    However, Article 2 does not contemplate the customary use of the coat-of-arms on the reverse of the flag: the right-hand profile of the eagle with its right talon on the prickly pear and holding snake with the left one. Thus offending article 5 of the same Act, which states that "all reproductions of the national coat-of-arms shall faithfully match the model described in article 2".

    This is clearly visible in the set of two flags which cover the back wall of (...) this House of Representatives.

    We propose to incorporate a second paragraph to article 2:

    When the National Coat-of-arms appears on the reverse side of the National Flag, the Mexican eagle will show its righthand profile, perched on its left talon, holding the curved serpent with the right talon and its beak.

    Abel Vicencio Álvarez, July 19, 1999.
    Reported by Luis Havas, October 22, 1999.
    Translanted by Santiago Dotor, October 22, 1999.


    Law initiatives regarding the reverse side of the flag were discussed and passed by the Mexican Parliament on April 20, 1995, being published in DOF of May 9, 1995 [gob95], adding the article 2nd. of the original Act published on February 8, 1984 [gob84].

    Article 2nd is as follows [unofficial translation] [gob95]:

    The National Coat of Arms is featured by an Mexican eagle exposing its left profile, the upper part of the wings in a level higher than plume and slightly displayed in a battle attitude; with the sustenation plumage downwards touching to the tail whose feathers are fan-like displayed. It puts its left claw on a bloomed prickly pear borns in a rock wich, in turn, arises from a lake. It is grasping with the right claw and the beack, in an eating attitude, a curved snake, harmonizing with the whole achievement. Several prickly pear's stems grow to the sides. Two branches, one of oak to the front of the eagle and another one of laurel opposed, form a lower semicircle, both are united by a ribbon divided into three stripes which, when the National Coat of Arms is represented in natural colors, match those of the National flag.

    When the National Arms is reproduced in the reverse side of the National Flag, the Mexican Eagle shall appear standing in its right claw, holding with the left one and the beack the curved serpent.

    Then, according the Flag Act, there exists the reverse side variant with no coat of arms.

    Quoted and translated by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, April 20, 2001


    National ensign

    According articles 14 and 15 of the Flag Act published on August 17, 1968. the National Flag is the National Ensign as well [gob68]:

    Article 14. (...) Every single Mexican ship and aircraft shall carry the National Flag, and they shall used it according the corresponding laws and rules (...).

    Article 15. The National Flag shall be hoisted everyday on the Migration Department's offices, customs, harbour master's offices and international airports.

    The 1968 act was was replaced by the currently-in-effect Ley sobre el Escudo, la Bandera y el Himno Nacionales [Act on the National Coat of arms, Flag and Anthem], published on the DOF of February 23, 1984, in effect a day later: Feb. 24, 1984. Though this Act did not modified the national flag and coat of arms features established by its predecessor one, it was to be promulgated to clarify some details about the national anthem; thus, several articles were arranged [gob84]:

    Article 15. (...) Every single Mexican aircraft and ship shall carry the National Flag and they shall use it according the corresponding laws and rules. (...)

    Article 16. The National Flag shall be hoisted everyday in the headquarters of the Powers of the Union, Migration Department's offices, Customs, harbour master's offices, International Airports; at the Diplomatic and Consular Representations abroad, and on the monumental hoist at the Plaza de la Constitución [Main Square] in the Republic's capital city.

    Quoted and translated by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, August 17, 2002.


    Cravat

    [Corbata / Cravatta for Mexican flags to be used indoors or parades]
    Click on the image to enlarge
    by Zachary Harden, December 2005.

    [gob84] states: Art. 3th. "The National Flag is a rectangle divided into three equal vertical stripes (...) It could carry a rope or a cravat of the same colors bellow the truck."

    Quoted and translated by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, June 22, 2001.


    Symbolism of the national flag

    There are several odd versions about the origin of the National Colors, but according to Manuel Carrera Stampa the most serious statement about their origin is that provided by Jorge Flores D., who said [csm60]:

    The colors of the flag were surely inspired on those of the arms of the Zelaya [Muy Noble y Muy Leal Ciudad de la Purísima-Concepción de Zelaya] granted by Phillip IV in 1669, and placed in the Celaya Regiment's [Regimiento de Celaya] flag of which Iturbide was the Colonel... Such arms are blue, white and red, in the middle of the white stripe there is a depiction scene featured by a mezquite three, underneath councilors signing the fundational act... So, it is very probable that the new flag had been created in Celaya, Guanajuato, instead of Iguala, for security reasons: his life Ituribide would not risk for the new and original idea to join two rival armies, then he chose a save and far place from the Insurgentes and close to conservatives: Celaya, Guanajuato(...)

    Then, if this theory is true, why did blue change to green?

    About red, several sources establish that it was not originally thought to include it in flags but something kind of purple, for this actually represented Castile (Spain). Unfortunately, for either the lack of purple cloth or its high price, the Three-Guarantees army were forced to use red instead [csm60].

    Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, October 4, 2001.


    Originally the colors were for religion, independence and union.

    Due to the unpopularity of Agustín de Iturbide, creator of the National Flag; to the federalistic and secularistic feelings roaming the goverment since the early days of independence, reinforced by a liberal constitution proclaimed by President Ignacio Comonfort in 1856 and by the Leyes de Reforma published between 1859 and 1860 by Liberal President Benito Juárez García, the colors of the National Flag acquired a new meaning: Green for hope; White for unity, purity, and honesty; while Red stood for parenthood and the blood of national heroes.

    Other meaning could be: Green for the territory (resources, mountains, rivers, etc); White for the people (ethnicity, believes, mixture, honesty, unity, purty); and Red standing for the struggles for remaining the national independence and freedom.

    Marc Junele Hoyos, 29 Apr 1998
    Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, April 21, 2004.


    Another circumstance came to change the original meaning of the National Flag colors is because of the emblem adopted by the Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI), which, after the 1910 Revolution, self-proclaimed the unique heir of the Revolution ideals. For many, in different times, the fact the PRI emblem bears the national colors has been considered an expropiation of the national identity. Thus, many proposals has been arisen, such as to change the PRI emblem, something that PRI partisans do not even consider in order to prevent other parties' emblems to bear the national colors, leading to a possible change of the National Flag itself.

    Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, April 21, 2004.


    The Ministry of Education [Secretaría de Eduación] in its official web-site estates:

    The flag's colours stand for:

    -Green: Hope
    -White: Unity
    -Red: Hero's blood

    Located and translated by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, February 24, 2014.


    Variants of the national flag


    [Bandera Nacional (National Flag of Mexico) with golden/grey coat of arms. By Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán]
    4:7
    [Alternate version of the Flag]
    [Design is an acceptable variant]
    [National Mexican Flag and Ensign]
    by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, August 31, 2001


    [Bandera Nacional (National Flag of Mexico) with full golden Coat of Arms. By Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán]
    4:7
    [Alternate version of the Flag]
    [Design is an acceptable variant]
    [National Mexican Flag and Ensign]
    by Juan Manuel Gabino Villascán, August 31, 2001


    See also:


    Anything below this line was not added by the editor of this page.