Last modified: 2016-10-30 by ivan sache
Keywords: gelibolu | bolayır | evreşe |
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Flag of Gelibolu - Image by Jens Pattke, 14 February 2013
The flag of Gelibolu (photo) is white with the municipality's emblem. "Belediye Başkanlığı" means "Municipality Presidency".
Tomislav Šipek, 12 February 2013
Flag of Bolayır - Image by Jens Pattke, 26 May 2015
The flag of Bolayır is white with the municipality's emblem. "Belediyesi" means "Municipality".
The emblem of the municipality features the mausoleum of Süleyman Pasha (photo) and the tomb of the writer Namık Kemal (1840-1888) (photo).
Süleyman Pasha (1316-1357) was the eldest son of Bey Orhan I (1326-1362). In 1352, a band of mercenaries garrisoned the Byzantine fort of Çimpe, near Bolayır, at the invitation of Emperor John VI Cantacuzenus (1347-1354). They soon offerred their allegiance to Süleyman Pasha, who established the first Ottoman strongholds in Thracia and the Balkans. Süleyman's rule was increased after the earthquake that destroyed in 1354 the walls of Gallipoli and ruined several other towns. The Turkish chronicles conveniently ignore this event, while the Byzantine chronicles highlight it to excuse the Byzantine weakness.
Orhan had intended Süleyman to succeed him, but Süleyman died in 1357, shortly after Halil's capture, as a result of a fall form his horse.
[C. Finkel. Osman's Dream: The Story of the Ottoman Empire, 1300-1923]
Namık Kemal was born in 1840 in Tekirdağ. His real name was Mehmet Kemal but he used the pen names Ahmet Nafiz, Hitam-ı Acemi, and Sabir. Kemal came from a prominent family, and as a youngster he took Arabic, Persian and history lessons. As an adult, he worked as a state official and held many important positions. Kemal moved to Istanbul and met Şinasi, who was one of the illustrious literary and political figures of the time. Namık Kemal joined the staff of Şinasi's newspaper Tasvir-i Efkâr, who upon moving to Paris handed the publication over to Kemal.
Kemal was soon sentenced to exile by the Ottoman government because of the paper's critical coverage of the government and escaped to Paris in 1867. In 1868, he began publishing the newspaper Hürriyet in London, and continued his support for political freedoms in the Ottoman Empire. He eventually parted ways with fellow intellectuals at this paper and decided to move back to Istanbul upon the invitation of the Ottoman grand Vizier. Namık Kemal returned to Istanbul in 1871 and resumed his career at the Diyojen, but he never published under his real name again. In 1872, Kemal was forced to leave Istanbul for Gelibolu (Gallipoli) where he published his newspaper İbret, and sought solutions to the various troubles that the country was experiencing.
Namık Kemal’s national fame came to him with his dramatic play Vatan Yahut Silistre. The play was a call for patriotism and freedom and had just that impact on audiences throughout the Empire. When Namık Kemal returned to Istanbul, excited and enthusiastic masses paid visits to the office of his newspaper İbret, much to the discontentment of the government of the period. İbret was closed for an indeterminate time, and Kemal was again sent on exile to Famagusta for 38 months. Following the demise of the government during the coup of 1876, he returned to Istanbul to become the first Turkish literary figure to deal with modern concepts such as individual freedom and nationhood.
Rather than focusing on the ideal state, Namık Kemal draws the portrait of an ideal human being, and concentrates on the issue “what kind of an individual should one be.” Namık Kemal maintains that the individual must follow ideals and personally struggle to attain freedom, progress and development. His drama was an appeal to personal responsibility, demanding that "the people" rise to the challenge to secure their freedom. His eulogy to "Hürriyet" (Freedom) contains seven essential concepts; the individual and his personal attributes, love of motherland and the defense of its territorial and political integrity, freedom and the fight for freedom, reverence to ideals, the need of a national history, the current state of the homeland, and the portrait of a new and ideal human being or individual.
Kemal managed to unify his political struggle with his prolific literary career, and during his short life he made valuable contributions for the improvement of the political structure of the Ottoman government.
Namık Kemal died on 2 December 1888 on the island of Chios.
[Turkish Culutral Foundation]
Tomislav Šipek & Ivan Sache, 20 March 2016
Flag of Evreşe - Image by Jens Pattke, 30 May 2015
The flag of Evreşe (photo) is white with the municipality's emblem. "Belediyesi" means "Municipality".
Tomislav Šipek, 23 May 2013