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Quasi-independent and semi-autonomous regions in Somalia (A - G)

Last modified: 2015-08-30 by bruce berry
Keywords: somalia |
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The complete list of Quasi-independent and semi-autonomous regions in Somalia can be found here.   Areas beginning with letters H - Q can be found here and with letters R - Z can be found here.

See also:


The United States of Abweyn was created on 19 September 2011 and claims Hiraan, Middle Shabelle and Lower Shabellene in central Somalia.  In addition to using the Somali flag, a white flag with the area's Arms in the centre of a light blue square background in the middle of the flag is also used.  This is illustrated in Der Flaggenkourier (No. 39 June 2014).
Jaume Ollé, 02 October 2014

Ahlu Sunna wal Jama'a

Ahlu Sunna wal Jama'a is a moderate Sufi militia that controls territory in central Somalia along the frontier with Ethiopia (including parts of Gedo, Galgadud and Gedo). Is opposed to al-Shabbab and is against Salafism and Wahabism.

Its flag is green with a red border along all four sides. Within the red border is an Arabic inscription, generally in white.  In the centre of the lower section is a half moon pointing upwards and a five-pointed star. Sometimes the half moon, the star, and the lower part of the inscription appear in gold.  The calligraphy of the inscription can vary from one flag to another. 
Jaume Ollé
, 02 October 2014


image by Eugene Ipavec, 19 Sep, 2010

Awdal is clan based division based on a 16th century sultanate in the westernmost region between Somaliland and Djibouti inhabited by Gadabursi sub-clan of the Dir. Somaliland and Adwalland are vying for control of this region. Awdal State of Somalia wants to be part of a federal government of Somalia. Its second anniversary took place in Switzerland on 20 March 2012. The closest that Rashid Aw Nor Hirsi, the president of Awdal State of Somalia, can travel is Mogadishu and the areas where Somaliland army have no presence.
Cai Zhenyuan,16 July 2013

It is not clear if Awdal is another self-proclaimed state or semi-autonomous region. The proposed flag of Awdal (see above) can be seen on many websites and variant can be seen in a photo on (see below), which probably means it has been adopted.

image by Eugene Ipavec, 19 Sep, 2010

Valentin Poposki, 16 Sep 2010

When Somaliland proclaimed its independence in 1991, it was opposed by the west province (populated by the Dir sub-clan Gadabursi) and proclaimed the Awdal republic. Borama is the main commercial centre. An agreement was signed with with the Somaliland Government of Hargheisa but this was not adopted any enthusiasm.

The flag initially used was white with the region's Arms in the center according Jim Davidson, the Chief Financial Officer of the Awdal Roads Company. However, this flag was no longer being used by the end of the 1990s.

image by Peter Hans van den Muijzenberg, 17 April 2015

In 2009 the local authorities proclaimed a new Awdal state opposed to Somaliland, with little control of the rest of the province. The flag adopted had three vertical stripes of light blue, white and light blue (in Canadian pale), as shown above in two versions. It appears that there is also a third version which has equal vertical bands.
Jaume Ollé, 02 October 2014

Azania / Azaaniya

image by Cai Zhenyuan, 28 Dec 2011

Azania was established on 20 March 2011 in Kenya and is supported by Kenya, which is interested helping develop a regional administration and establish a buffer zone against threats from al-Shabaab. Azania state is led by Mohamed Abdi Gandhi, a former Somalia defence minister. He is an educated man who has personal contacts with the governments of both Ethiopia and Kenya. The regional state works in Gedo and Lower Jubba regions, and its capital is Bu'aale town.
Cai Zhenyuan, 16 July 2013

After seven days of deliberations in April 2011, Somalia’s Transitional Federal Government, members of parliament, civil society groups and clan elders agreed to the formation of a semi-autonomous state to be called Azaaniya. Originally known as Jubaland, Azaaniya comprises lower and middle Juba and Gedo regions on the Kenya-Somalia border. On 03 April 2011, Prof Muhamed Gandhi Mohamed was sworn in as the interim
president of the newly-created state.

It was further reported that the flag of Azania shall be rectangular in shape with three colours - red at the bottom, White at the top and blue in the middle, with all stripes being of equal size (as seen in the photo below).
Cai Zhenyuan, 28 Dec 2011

Image sent by Jens Pattke, 08 Apr 2011

Somali politicians on Sunday announced the creation of a new state in the war-scarred nation. Somalia's fragile government, quickly condemned the move, which it said would further fracture the already chaotic nation. The creation of Azania was celebrated Sunday in Kenya's capital of Nairobi. Its President, Mohamed Abdi Gandhi, said his primary duty is to retake his territory from al-Qaida-linked militant group al-Shabab. Since the ouster of dictator Mohamed Siad Barre in 1991 the Horn of Africa country has split into a number of clan-ruled territories and seen the creation of such self-styled nations as the Republic of Somaliland and Puntland.
Jens Pattke, 08 Apr 2011

Not mentioned in that short article above is that this region has been until now better known as Jubaland, consisting lately of the Somali "regions" of Lower Juba, Middle Juba and Gedo. Jubaland in the colonial era was originally part of British East Africa (Kenya), ceded to Italy in 1925 (administered for a year as a separate colony, Oltre Giuba, or Trans-Juba), and incorporated into Italian Somaliland in 1926. This region borders Kenya which is now interested in its independent status as a buffer state between it and the rest of the chaos in Somalia. Jubaland was briefly independent in 1998-99 (unrecognized), and Wikipedia reports a different flag from what is described in FOTW.

While Azania has been in recent times been better known as a proposed name for Black-majority rule South Africa (ultimately rejected by the ruling African National Congress), as well as sometimes applied to all sub-Saharan Africa, the name in the era of the Roman Empire applied to the coast of East Africa below the Horn to somewhere around Tanzania (thus including modern Jubaland). According to Wikipedia, the etymology of Azania remains unclear.
T.F. Mills, 08 Apr 2011

Azania take its name from that given to the unexplored areas of Africa populated by black people.  It was proposed as a name for South Sudan in the 1970s.

On 20 March 2011 the state of Azania was created in Nairobi, sponsored by the Kenyans, and with the idea of conquering the Islamist control zone in Jubaland and create a buffer state between Kenya and the Islamists.  Azania controls only a narrow stripe of land along the border and the main centre is Buaale.

Its flag was identical to the Russian flag as shown above.  Christyan Kretowics has provided an image (source unknown) with a elephant head in the central stripe, and a second image with a red inscription, Azania State of Jubaland, in the white stripe.

There was also reports in 2013 about a flag change in 2012 to a blue flag bordered white on all four sides, with a white crescent near the hoist and a five pointed star near the fly. I can’t confirm the accuracy of this information.
Jaume Ollé, 02 October 2014


image by Jaume Ollé, 02 October 2014

Barawa (also known as Brava) is a port town in the southeastern Lower Shebelle region of Somalia.  In 2009 Al-Shabaab militants seized control of the town  and in 2014 the African Union Mission to Somalia (AMISOM) gained control from Al-Shabaab.
Jaume Ollé
, 02 October 2014


Benaadir State

The state of Benaadir was created on 01 July 2011.  Its flag comprises horizontal stripes of yellow, light green and light blue, with a white triangle at hoist (1/4 of the length of the flag). In the center of the flag is a white five pointed star on the light blue stripe.

  image by Peter Hans van den Muijzenberg, 17 April 2015

A rival Banadir State (with a single “a”) or Banadir Land, was established in Nairobi in December 2011.  Its flag is reported to be three horizontal stripes of green, white and light blue.  A photo shows the arms of state as having a shield, divided diagonally (red on the left of the observer and blue in the right) and in center a maroon lighthouse.  Above the shield is a blue five pointed star.  The shield is bordered in both sides by a crossed laurel branches and below is a ribbon with the inscription "Banaadir Land".   Near the shield are two Somali flags.

image by Peter Hans van den Muijzenberg, 17 April 2015

Other reports suggest the following flags for Banadir State:

1) A White flag with the same arms in the center (but the inscription in the ribbon is "Banadir State" instead "Banaadir Land");
2) A horizontally divided flag of blue over red, with the same arms in the center.  The ribbon here is not visible, but the star above the shield is white.
Jaume Ollé, 02 October 2014


Banaadir-Shabelle State

image by Peter Hans van den Muijzenberg, 17 April 2015

Banaadir-Shabelle State was created in Mogadiscio March 2012 claiming Banaadir, Lower Shabelle and Middle Shabelle, but it was quickly suppressed. Its flag was  horizontal stripes of green, white, green (in proportion of 2:1:2) with a light blue triangle at hoist containing a white five pointed star.  A photo shows a long flag (1:3 or so), but probably the usual proportion is 2:3.

Islamists in Banadir fly a green flag with Arabic inscriptions.  Two photos show a green flag with a white stripe perhaps diagonal with a blue element in the centre.
Jaume Ollé, 02 October 2014


image by Jaume Ollé, 03 October 2014

Dooxada Cagaaran (Cagaaran Valley) is an state created in Mogadishu on 08 May 2011, The Cagaaran Valley claims the region of Jubaland.

According to Flaggenkourier (No. 39, June 2014), it flag has a dark green field with a red crescent moon in the centre.  A blue triangle occupies the upper hoist (canton) and contains a white five pointed star.

I have two photos of the proclamation event : one shows only the Somalia flag and the other shows a white flag with some device.  One one third of the latter flag is visible and I am not sure that can be attributed to Cagaaran.  There is also hand painted drawing showing a flag similar to the one illustrated in Flaggenkourier, but green and blue are separated by a narrow white diagonal stripe as shown above.
Jaume Ollé, 03 October 2014

Ceelbaraf state

Ceelbaraf state was proclaimed at north of Mogadishu in the city of al Baraf.

The only image of the flag of this self-proclaimed state is shown on Somalia Online.
Jaume Ollé, 03 October 2014

 Ceelbuur State

image by Peter Hans van den Muijzenberg, 19 April 2015


Ceelbuur (El Bur) state was proclaimed in the district of El Bur in Galgaud in 2011, but in fact the proclamation was in London on 05 June 2011.

The first flag was green with a central white emblem/logo (seems to be a piece of ceramic) in the centre and the name of the state above.


image by Peter Hans van den Muijzenberg, 19 April 2015

In 2012 the flag was changed.  One photo shows the flag with a light blue central stripe defaced with central star flanked on each side with the emblem, all in white. Above and below the blue is a narrow white stripe that seems to be part of the flag (when compared to the size of the Somali flags). On these white stripes is written in black capital letters “CEEL-BUUR” above and the inscription in the bottom stripe is not visible but must be “STATE” because the flag with the two stripes is pictured in other photo in a T-shirt and State is write in the lower part. Flaggenkourier (No. 39, June 2014) show this flag nut without the upper and lower white stripes.

image by Peter Hans van den Muijzenberg, 19 April 2015

A second photo shows another flag with the inscription Ceelbur state (above star) and Maamul Goboleedkaceelbuur state (below).  The lower inscription can be translated as Regional State of Ceel Buur.
Jaume Ollé, 03 October 2014



The following link shows an image named the "Darwishland flag". It looks like a Somali flag with a horse head and the words "Darwishland of Somalia" added. The image does not give the proof that Darwiishland /Northland state of Somalia actually uses this as a flag but I think it was worth being reported.
Olivier Touzeau, 02 Aug 2008

Dooxada Shabelle

image by Jaume Ollé, 04 October 2014

Dooxada Shabelle was on created 13 April 2011 by the Gaal Jecel clan who are opposed to the  Jijeele and Hawadle clans that had previously proclaimed a state in Hiiraan and Shabelle.  Its flag is comprises three equal horizontal stripes of red, white and green, with a light blue triangle at the hoist defaced with a white five pointed star.  The regional emblem is placed in the centre of the white stripe.

The Arms of Dooxada Shabelle are a head of leopard between laurel branches, beneath are two crossed spears and in the crossing a blue ribbon with white star in center.
Jaume Ollé, 04 October 2014

Dooxo State

image by Jaume Ollé, 04 October 2014

This state claims the Galgadud and Mudug regions and was created on 06 July 2011.

The flag seems to be the Somali flag with a symbol behind the star, and with the name of the state written on the flag.  However, in illustrations from Flaggenkourier (No. 39, June 2014) and on the internet, the star is shown slightly off centre (but it is possible that the star should in fact be in the centre of the flag). 
Jaume Ollé, 04 October 2014

Federated Hinterland State

image sent by Cai Zhenyuan and resized by Eugene Ipavec, 06 Dec 2010

State Flag of the Federated Hinterland State is shown at and is described as follows:

The State Flag shall have a rectangular shape with three equal horizontal stripes. Green indicates the fertile nature of the territory and is the bottom stripe; Red indicates the bloodshed and is the top stripe. The Black stripe indicates that Federated Hinterland is African State within the Somali Federal Republic. In the fly of the red stripe is a large white five pointed star surrounded below and on the 'east" and "west" sides by three smaller white five pointed stars.

Cai Zhenyuan, 05 Dec 2010

A map of the area showing an image of the flag has been provided.
Rob Raeside, 06 Dec 2010

Hiiraan State

image by Cai Zhenyuan, 13 Mar 2011

It was reported by HOL that on 13 July 2010 a preliminary conference was organized and sponsored by the Hawadle Clan of Hiiraan to formally pave the way for reconciliation and to establish a local administration in the Hiiraan region of Somalia was held in the conference hall of Andolus Hotel in Eastleigh, Nairobi. A flag for Hiiraan, as shown, above was displayed at the conference.
Cai Zhenyuan, 13 Mar 2011

Khaatumo State

Image by Cai Zhenyuan, 03 May 2012

Khaatumo was announced in January 2012 after a meeting in Taleh town of Sool and it comprises the Sool, Sanaag and Eyn regions. Khatumo was established during a conference known as Khatumo2 and supports the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) rather than Somaliland. The Dhulbahante clan, a sub clan of Darod clan, is dominant in the regions of Sool, Sanag and Eyn and has maintains the SSC militia fighters who fought against Somaliland in Buuhoodle. Major politicians including Ali Khalif Galeyr, a former Somali prime minister and lecturer at US universities, backed the conference. The Khatumo state of Somalia will have three presidents, rotating on a six month basis, and a Supreme Council comprising of three members, and a cabinet of six members. The three routine presidents are: Ahmed Elmi Osman (Amed Karash), Mohmaed Yusuf Jama (Indhasheeel) and Nur Elmi (Biindhe). In March of this year, the TFG officially recognized Khatumo. In March 2012, the TFG recognized the state, but rescinded this few days a later.
Cai Zhenyuan,16 July 2013

Khaatumo State is a newly formed semi-autonomous state located in north eastern Somalia. It was formed after a conference held in the Taleh district of Sool region in December 2011. The conference was attended by representatives from Sool, Sanaag and Cayn regions.

Based on a photograph on flickr, the state flag has a dark blue background with a large white five-pointed star in the hoist half and a horse in the fly half, also in white. The name of the state (in English) is written at the top of the flag in white.
Cai Zhenyuan, 03 May 2012

Image by Cai Zhenyuan, 27 May 2013

According to this source, Khaatumo has a new flag which is blue with a white five-pointed star in the centre. Near the hoist, to the left of the star, is a jumping white horse. No further information is provided.
Cai Zhenyuan, 27 May 2013


An image of the flag of Maayland / Southern Somali Union is shown at This flag has already been reported as the flag of South-West Somalia.

Olivier Touzeau, 02 Aug 2008


Northland State is an autonomous state in the disputed Sool, Sanaag and Cayn regions of Somalia between the self-declared republic of Somaliland and the autonomous Somali states of Puntland and Maakhir.  Northland State was declared autonomous on 01 May 2008.  Currently it appears as if the Somali national flag is still being used.
Chrystian Kretowicz, 13 July 2008

The Northland State (01 May 2008 - 11 January 2009) was an autonomous state in the disputed Sool, Sanaag and Cayn regions of Somalia.  While Northland's official capital was Las Anod, its parliament never met due to Las Anod being under the control of .  In the fly of the red stripe is a large white five pointed star surrounded below and on the 'east" and "west" sides by three smaller white five pointed stars.
Cai Zhenyuan, 04 Dec 2013

A map of the area showing an image of the flag has been provided.
Rob Raeside, 06 Dec 2010



Gaarodi state was proclaimed in February 2012.

It uses the Somali flag. In the upper part is a longer white rectangle within which is the underlined blue inscription “GAARODI STATE OF SOMALIA”.
Jaume Ollé, 04 October 2014

Gal-Hiiraan and Haradhere State

image by Jaume Ollé, 04 October 2014

This state was proclaimed on 23 September 2010. The main city is Haradhere, a pirate stronghold, which is ruled by the Ayr clan.

The flag is confirmed by a photo and has three equal horizontal stripes of light blue, green, and dark blue.  The latter shading simulating the waters of the sea. In Flaggenkourier (No. 39, June 2014), the lower stripe is simplified to a plain dark blue.
Jaume Ollé, 04 October 2014

Galgaduud State

image by Željko Heimer, 20 Jan 2003

Galgaduud State was created in April 2011 in Dubai.  It claims all Galgaduud together with the zones governed by the self proclaimed states of Galmudug, Himav and Heb, Mareeg, Ceelbuur, Gal-Hiraan and Haradhere and Somali Central State.

The flag in use is the Somali national flag which is confirmed by several photos.
Jaume Ollé, 04 October 2014

Ganaane (Waajid)

Ganaane State was proclaimed on 12 January 2012 in the Wajid district in the south-west of Somalia.

The flag, confirmed in a photograph has horizontal stripes of white, light blue, red with a triangle light blue at hoist bearing a white star.
Jaume Ollé, 08 October 2014


A horizontally divided green-light blue-red flag with five white stars in line on the blue stripe is shown at here as the flag of Gedoland, an autonomous area within Somalia.
Olivier Touzeau, 02 Aug 2008

Gedo State was proclaimed in 2006.  The flag has horizontal stripes of green, light blue and red; with five white stars in the centre of the blue stripe.
Jaume Ollé, 09 October 2014

Geel State

image by Jaume Ollé, 09 October 2014

Geel State claims to control of part of Jubaland, Inner Shabelle (Baardhere) and Inner Hiraan, but probably its control is in fact very limited.

The upper first two-thirds of its flag has a white background, with a light blue five pointed star in the canton and a black camel (facing towards the fly) in the centre.  The lower third is a light blue horizontal stripe.  The fly (one third the length of the flag) comprises a narrow green vertical stripe and a thicker orange/light brown coloured stripe.
Jaume Ollé, 09 October 2014

Greenland State

Greenland state was proclaimed Nairobi on 21 November 2010.  The only evidence of a flag is unclear, but appears to show a flag with a plain green or turquoise background on which is a black inscription - Greenland State of Jubba.
Jaume Ollé, 09 October 2014