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União Democrática Nacional de Moçambique (Mozambique)

Democratic National Union of Mozambique

Last modified: 2005-12-17 by bruce berry
Keywords: mozambique | udenamo |
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[UDENAMO flag] image by Jaume Ollé 23 Nov 1997 See also:


In August 1961 Jaime R. Sigauke, director of International affairs of UDENAMO was called upon to design a flag. With some suggestions from Whitney Smith two designs were created and accepted by the Central Committee of the party. Both have the same pattern but one is for use of the party and other was to be used as national flag after independence. The flag is light green near the hoist and black in the fly (divided diagonally). In center is a circle with a red star and a wreath of sugar cane. In the party flag the circle is white and the wreath is within the circle. In the national flag the circle is blue and the wreath is around  the outside of the circle. In both cases the wreath is gold and the star is red.  The symbolism is as follows: Black - for an African country; green for agriculture; red for the liberation struggle; and the star is for unity. A new proposed name for Moçambique after independence was Monomotapa, as was the case before the advent of the Portuguese (NOTE: As far I know Monomotapa was a king instead a kingdom, and ruled only a part of Mozambique)
Source: Flag Bulletin 3.
Jaume Ollé, 20 Apr 2001

Another UDENAMO flag

[Other UDENAMO flag] image by Jens Pattke, 24 Mar 2001

In an article in "Flag Bulletin Newsletter" is a flag of the UDENAMO. She has another shape than on the relevant
Mozambican page.
Jens Pattke, 24 Mar 2001

Unknown UDENAMO (?) flag

[Unknown UDENAMO (?) flag] image by Jens Pattke, 20 Mar 2001

In 1960, Adelino Gwambe established in Salisbury (Harare) the Democratic National Union of Mozambique (União Democrática Nacional de Moçambique / UDENAMO), and in November 1960 the Mozambican African National Union / MANU was established in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania). Later in 1960 UNAM (União Nacional Africana Moçambicana) was established by Mozambican fighters. All three liberation movements fought for the independence of Mozambique. In summer of 1962 patriots of the MANU, UNAM, and UDENAMO established the Liberation Front of Mozambique (Frente de Libertação de Moçambique / FRELIMO).  FRELIMO was led by Eduardo C. Mondlane, who was murdered on 3 Feb 1969.
Jens Pattke, 20 Mar 2001

A similar flag (without the triangle) is that of the Swaziland Progressive Party. The emblem is on several flags of (former) Mozambican political parties.
Jarig Bakker, 21 Mar 2001

If you translate the English MANU to Portuguese, you get "União Nacional Africana Moçambicana", whose initials are UNAM. I have strong suspicions that UNAM and MANU are one and the same thing. I don't know this flag in particular, but it looks a lot like the flag of FRELIMO. An earlier version of it, perhaps?
Jorge Candeias, 21 Mar 2001

A German vexillologist asked about this flag, for which he used the name: Flag of the UDENAMO within the FRELIMO. I don't believe this. It is right that black, green and yellow are the so-called "Azanian colours" which are used. These colours are used by the ANC and the Inkhata in South Africa, the Swaziland Progressive Party and many other political organizations in Southern Africa.

With the wreath from sugar cane, there is a reference to the UDENAMO. Therefore I suspect that that is present flag is that of the MANU or UNAM. Both organizations were established in the sphere of influence of the African National Congress, in Salisbury (Southern Rhodesia) and Nyasaland. In the encyclopedia of the Bibliographical Institute Leipzig (former GDR) (1970), two movements are mentioned. Both later joined to form FRELIMO. Only initials of the organizations or German translations are used here. In the Atlas zur Zeitgeschichte - Asien, Afrika und Amerika im 20. Jahrhundert, by Manfred Scheuch, published by Christian Brandstätter Publishers in Vienna (Austria) in 1998 seems to be informed about these three movements. The three movements united to the FRELIMO. In the book, their names are mentioned in Portuguese or English.
Jens Pattke, 21 Mar 2001