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Évreux (Municipality, Eure, France)

Last modified: 2021-06-17 by ivan sache
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Flag of Évreux - Image by Olivier Touzeau, 18 January 2021

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Presentation of Évreux

The municipality of Évreux (59,052 inhabitants in 2017; 2,645 ha) is located 100 km south-west of Paris.

Évreux was known in the late Antiquity as Mediolanum Aulercorum, "the central town of the Aulerci", refering to the Gallic tribe inhabiting the area. The present-day name of Évreux originates from the Gallic tribe of Eburovices. Évreux was a flourishing town during the Gallo-Roman period and the seat of a bishopric since the 4th century.
The Normans invaded Evreux in 892. The first known members of the family of the counts of Évreux descended from an illegitimate son of Richard I, duke of Normandy; their male lineage became extinct with the death of count William in 1118. The county was transfered to Agnes, William's sister, wife of Simon of Montfort (died 1087). The town was devastated in 1120 by Henry I, King of England and burnt by Philip II Augustus in 1194.

In the Middle Ages, Évreux was one of the centres of Jewish culture; its scholars are quoted in the medieval notes of the Talmud called the Tosafot. Several Jewish academics lived in the town including Samuel ben Shneor (13th century), who was known as the "Prince of Évreux", being a much loved rabbi amongst his followers.
Amaury VI of Montfort-Évreux ceded the title in 1200 to King Philip Augustus. His successor Philip the Fair offered it in 1307 to his brother Louis of Évreux, for whom Philip the Long raised the county of Évreux into a peerage of France in 1317. Philip of Évreux, son of Louis, became king of Navarre by his marriage to Joan II of Navarre, daughter of Louis the Headstrong; their son Charles the Bad and their grandson Charles the Noble were also kings of Navarre. The latter ceded the counties of Évreux, Champagne and Brie to King Charles VI in 1404.
During the Hundred Years' War, the town was invaded by the English King Henry V in 1418, to be returned to France 22 years later. It was again temporarily alienated (1569–1584) as an appanage for Duke Francis of Anjou, and in 1651 was finally given to Frédéric Maurice de La Tour d'Auvergne, duke of Bouillon, in exchange for the principality of Sedan. The most famous holder of the title is Louis Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, son of Marie Anne Mancini.

Olivier Touzeau, 18 January 2021

Flag of Évreux

The flag of Évreux (photo) is blue with the municipal arms, "Azure three fleurs de lis or superimposed with a bendlet compony argent and gules", in the center. This was the coat of arms of the counts of Évreux.

Olivier Touzeau, 18 January 2021