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Treaty Ten (Canada)

Last modified: 2019-11-24 by rob raeside
Keywords: canada | treaty ten |
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[Treaty 10 flag] image located by Valentin Poposki, 4 October 2019

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Treaty 10

Treaty 10 was signed between 1906 and 1907 with 7 First Nations - two from Manitoba (Barren Lands First Nation and Northlands First Nation) and five from Saskatchewan (Birch Narrows First Nation, Buffalo River Dene Nation, Canoe Lake First Nation, English River First Nation and Hatchet Lake First Nation). The flag of the Treaty 10 was hoisted during the Third Annual Treaty 10 Gathering held July 2-4, 2019 in La Plonge Indian Reserve of the English River First Nation, Saskatchewan. Image of the flag taken from the poster.
Vanja Poposki, 4 October 2019

The text with explanation and description of the flag is posted at There is also the draft version of the flag, before the final version was adopted

Treaty 10 Flag- RATIONALE
The rationale for the Treaty Flag components are as follows:
-Treaty 10 1906-1907: I believe that we should have the number treaty and date on our flag as other treaty flags have the same format. This treaty is unique that it has two years for when the Chiefs and headmen signed. The lily is the provincial flower and signifies Saskatchewan. The white spruce above 1907 represents the provincial tree of Manitoba.
- Medicine Wheel: Each treaty flag have the significant sacred hoop and within it. Each direction represents an aspect of northern life. North- moose tracks, to represent Hunting. The moose can provide for many in community. East - pickerel (fish), to represent Fishing. Fishing is a significant food source for the people of the north. South - beaver, to represent Trapping. Trapping is the way of life and source of economy and trade. West- blueberries, to represent Gathering. Gathering is a continued practice for the long winters ahead. Families shared time together. All of these aspects falls in line with the Chiefs who did not want their way of life affected by the treaty. This honors that.
- Eagle Feathers: There are 7 feathers to represent each of the First Nations that signed Treaty 10. The eagle or eagle feather are used on other treaty flags that were developed. Each feather has a tree within it. This represents that we are woodland people.
- Canoe and Paddle: Was the mode of transportation of the people of the north and used by the people of the territory and negotiators to meet and sign treaty. Both were very important on the vast waterways in the north. The canoe and paddle also form an .. X .. which is significant in previous treaty signings.
- Syllabics: l>nUr'L~ r'a.'Ab:> (ostesimawasinahikan - treaty, constitution.) This is the Cree concept and will definitely need the Denesuline aspect included. All of which is unique and not on any treaty flag.
Vanja Poposki, 4 October 2019