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Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

Last modified: 2020-07-14 by ian macdonald
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Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil) image by Ivan Sache, 13 July 2020

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The municipality of Caxias do Sul (483,377 inhabitants in 2017, therefore the 2nd most populated municipality in Rio Grande do Sul) is located 130 km of Porto Alegre.

Caxias do Sul originates in the establishment of a colony in the 1870s. Covering four square leagues, the colony was divided in rural and urban plots. The plots were separated by "linhas" (lines), paths of 7 to 13 km in length, open in the forest. Rural plots had a nominal area of 22 to 25 ha, but were sometimes bigger in practice, up to 80 ha.
In 1875, Caxias was known as Fundos de Nova Palmira, due to its location south of the German colony of Nova Palmira. Massive Italian immigration caused the colony to be renamed to Nova Milano - a name still used by the 2nd district of Farroupilha - and Barracão - "barracks", for the provisory building erected to house the newcomers.
On 11 April 1877, the colony was renamed to Colônia Caixas by the Special Inspector of Lands and Colonization of the Province of Rio Grande; the colony's seat was set up in the 5th league, now Caixas downtown. The colony remained locally known as Campo dos Bugres (Buggers' Field) as a reference to the Caingangue who once lived in the area. The colony was divided in three seats in 1880: Caxias, Nova Milano and Nova Trento; the settlement housing the Directorate of the Colony and the Commission of Lands and Colonization was renamed to Sede Dante. in 1883, the colony counted 7,359 inhabitants (vs 3,849 in 1878) and 93 commercial establishments (vs only 3 in 1878).

Côlonia Caxias was elevated to the 5th district of São Sebastião do Caí on 12 April 1884, as Freguesia de Santa Tereza de Caxias. The municipality of Santa Tereza de Caxias was established on 20 June 1890, composed of three districts: Santa Tereza de Caxias (seat), Nova Trento and Nova Milano.
Santa Tereza de Caxias was soon connected to the rest of the word by telegraph (1895), phone (1906), and railway (1910). The town was granted the rank of "cidade" by Decree No. 1,607 issued on 1 June 1910, under the simplified name of Caxias. The name Caxias do Sul was prescribed by Decree No. 720 issued on 29 December 1944.
Municipal website

Caxias' namesake is the Duke of Caxias, Protector of the Brazilian Army.
Luiz Alves de Lima e Silva (1803-1880) was the son of Field Marshal Francisco de Lima e Silva, a favorite of Empress Leopoldina. Little is known about his youth before admission to the Royal Military Academy in 1818. Promoted to the rank of Lieutenant in 1821, he was incorporated to the 1st Fusilier Battalion.
After the proclamation of the independence of Brazil, Peter I organized in October 1822 in the Santana Camp the Imperial Honor Guard and the Emperor's Battalion, the latter being composed of 800 elite soldiers. Luiz Alves received in the Imperial chapel on 10 November 1822 the flag of the Empire, granted by the emperor himself. He soon experienced his baptism by fire when the battalion was sent to Bahia on 3 June 1823 to suppress the anti-independence uprising raised by General Madeiro de Melo. He was rewarded with the title he cherished the most all his life long, Independence Veteran.
As a captain, he gallantly fought with the Emperor's Battalion in 1825 during the Cisplatine War, being rewarded with the rank of Major.

The Balaiada revolt, which broke out in 1838 in Vila da Manga (Maranhão), was named for one of its leaders, the "balaio" (basket wicker) Manoel Francisco dos Anjos Ferreira. Joined by 3,000 runaway slaves led by Cosme Bento, the rebels captured the town of Caxias in 1839, with the support of the local Liberal elite, which was in struggle with the Conservative provincial government.
The regency government commissioned Lieutenant-Colonel Luís Alves, appointed President of Maranhão, to suppress the rebellion. Commanding a troop of 8,000 soldiers, he defeated several times the rebels, who were offered amnesty and eventually surrendered in January 1841.
As a reward, Luís Alves was created Baron of Caxias on 18 July 1841. The same year, he was unanimously elected Representative of the Province of Maranhão at the Legislative Assembly and promoted to the rank of Brigadier; the next year, he was appointed Commander of the Court's Army. After the uprising held in May 1842 by the Liberal Party in São Paulo, Caxias was named Commander-in-Chief of the forces sent to suppress the revolt and Vice-President of the province of São Paulo. He succeeded within slightly more than one month and was sent to Mato Grosso, "pacifying" the province in September 1842. As a reward he was promoted to the rank of Field Marshal on 30 July 1842 and soon appointed Commander-in-Chief of the troops and President of the Province of Rio Grande do Sul, where more than ten presidents and generals had failed to stop the Ragamuffin revolt. Caxias obtained the end of the rebellion by the peace treaty signed in Ponche Verde on 1 March 1845. Accordingly, he was proclaimed Peace's Councillor and Pacifier of Brazil, and created Count of Caxias.

Caxias went back to Rio Grande do Sul in 1851 as President of the province and Commander-in-Chief of the Southern Army; on 5 September 1851, he entered Uruguay and defeated Manuel Oribe, decreasing the pressure on the southern border of Brazil. Promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-General in 1853, he was created Marquis of Caxias the same year.
The Triple Alliance War broke out in 1865, opposing Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay to Paraguay. Caxias, promoted to the rank of Army Marshal, was appointed the next year Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial Forces. For the first time in America, he used an aerostat to watch a battle field. Among his achievements are the building of the Grand Chaco road, which allowed the Brazilian forces to invade Paraguayan Chaco, the fight for the bridge over river Itororó ("Brazilians, follow me!"), and the eventual seizure of Asunción, the capital of Paraguay, on 1 January 1869. As a reward, he was created Duke of Caxias the same year.

Most historians consider Caxias as the greatest Brazilian military officer ever. His birthday (25 August) was made on 25 August 1932 the Day of Soldier; he was proclaimed Protector of the Army on 13 March 1962.
Biography, Army official website

Ivan Sache, 13 July 2020

Description of the Flag

The flag and arms of Caxias do Sul are prescribed by Municipal Law No. 2,170 promulgated on 24 April 1974.

Article 1.
1) Coat of arms.
The coat of arms shall be composed of a field or (representing wheat crops, a culture originating in the region), outlined purpure; a narrow chief embattled vert (representing the municipality's industry); two pallets vert in pale dexter beneath the chief (representing the Brazilian pines natives from the region) and eight rhombs 2, 3, 2 and 1 purpure sinister beneath the chief (representing vineyards). The shield surmounted by a mural crown argent with eight towers, five visible. The shield surrounded by acanthus leaves and grapevine fructed proper; the whole guarded by two lions proper, one dexter looking at dexter, the other sinister looking at sinister the two applying the forepaws to the shield and the rear paws to the acanthus leaves, as the symbol of the coat of arms of the Province of Venezia. Beneath the shield a scroll blue interlaced with the acanthus leaves proper supporting the lions and inscribed purpure "Caxias do Sul" in the center, "1875" dexter and "1880" sinister (which are the dates of initiation of Italian colonization in the region and of municipal emancipation, respectively).

2) Flag
The flag shall be plain white, charged in the center with the municipal coat of arms.

4) Colors
The municipal colors, as shown on the coat of arms, shall be green (representing Brazilian pines and forest), yellow (representing wheat), and purple (representing grapes).
Leis Municipais database


On flags used indoors, the coat of arms is inscribed in a circle, either yellow or green:

Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil) image by Ivan Sache, 13 July 2020

Photos - yellow circle

Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil) image by Ivan Sache, 13 July 2020

Photos - green circleávio-cassina-é-eleito-prefeito-de-caxias-do-sul-1.391998;noticia19644.html

Ivan Sache
, 13 July 2020

Grupo Escoteiro Amigo Panda

Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil) image by Ivan Sache, 13 July 2020

The flag of Grupo Escoteiro Amigo Panda (Scout Group No. 296/RS, 16th District) is white with a black triangle in upper hoist and an orange triangle in lower fly. The group's emblem, featuring a great panda, is placed in the flag's center.


Ivan Sache, 13 July 2020