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Communist Party of Nepal

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[Communist Party of Nepal Flag] image by Jaume Ollé

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Communist Party of Nepal

A red flag with the hammer and sickle. I have seen a photo with an image of a red flag with a hammer and sickle and a device in the lower fly corner, that must be the (electoral?) emblem, a sun.
Jaume Ollé, 30 January 2003

The Communist Party of Nepal was founded on 22 April 1949 by Pushpa Lal Shrestha. It was banned in 1952 for three years. The Party held its First National Congress on 30 January 1954, with Man Mohan Adhikari as General Secretary. In the parliamentary elections of 1959, the CPN won 4 seats out of 109. In 1960, following a royal coup, the Parliament was dissolved and all political parties were banned. The Partyless Panchayat system lasted until 1990.

In 1971, a radical movement was formed in the Jhapa district. The movement was the root of the All Nepal Communist Revolutionary Coordination Committee (Marxist-Leninist), founded in 1975. The Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist-Leninist) was formed in 1978. The Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist) seceded in 1986, but both parties merged again in the the Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist) in 1991. The party broke again in 1998 and was reestablished in March 2002.

In 1991, the CPN-UML won 30% of the voices, earning 69 out of 205 seats in the House of Representatives and 16 out of 60 seats in the National Assembly. In 1994, the CPN-UML won the elections with 31% of the votes and 88 seats. The party formed a minority government in December 1994, with Man Mohan Adhikari as Prime Minister, and was ousted from the government in August 1995. In March 1997, the CPN-UML was involved with two other parties in a coalition government.

Ivan Sache, 30 January 2003

Here is the current situation of the CPM.

The Communist Party of Nepal was founded in Calcutta, India, on April 29, 1949. CPN was formed to struggle against the autocratic Rana regime, feudalism and imperialism. The founding general secretary was Puspa Lal Shestra. CPN played an important role in the 1951 uprising that overthrew the Rana regime. In 1954 the first party congress was held clandestinely in Patan. Manmohan Adhikari was elected general secretary. In 1957 the second party congress was held in Kathmandu. For the first time the party could hold its congress openly. Keshar Jung Rayamajhi was elected general secretary. The congress approved a republican party programme.
    In early 1961 all political parties were banned. A wave of repression against CPN was initiated by the government. Rayamajhi, had however, expressed certain faith in the politics of the monarch, something that provoked stern reaction from other sectors of the party. To resolve the conflict a Central Plenum was convened in Darbhanga, India. The plenum lasted one month. Three lines emerged, a pro-constitutional monarchy line led by Rayamajhi, a line that wanted to restore the dissolved parliament and launch broad mass movements led by Pushpa Lal and a third line which favoured a constitutional assembly led by Mohan Bikram Singh. The latter line emerged victorious, but its sole representative in the Central Committee was Singh.
    A 3rd party congress was convened in Varanasi, India, in April 1962. But the preparation of the congress had been full of controversy. Initially the Rayamajhi clique, who controlled the Central Committee, had been hostile towards holding it. The congress approved the programme of National Democratic Revolution proposed by Tulsi Lal Amatya, and elected Tulsi Lal as general secretary. In an attempt to maintain the unity of the party, Pushpa Lal and Tulsi Lal were to share central leadership responsibilities. Rayamjhi was expelled. But the conflicts soon re-emerged. The inner-party conflict can be seem with the backdrop of the Sino-Soviet split and the internal polemics in the Communist Party of India. The Rayamajhi section, which could be seen as the most pro-Soviet Union faction, did not recognize the outcome of the congress, although they recognized the congress as such as the legitimate 3rd party congress. Rayamjhi's followers organized themselves as a separate party, Communist Party of Nepal (Rayamjhi).
    In 1968 the section of Pushpa Lal organized a separate convention. This led to the founding of a separate party, with Pushpa Lal as general secretary. This party became know as Communist Party of Nepal (Pushpa Lal). Out of this group, Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist-Leninist) and other groups would evolve.
    In 1971 a group of CPN leaders (Manmohan Adhikari, Shambhu Ram and Mohan Bikram Singh) were released from jail. They formed the Central Nucleus, which tried to unify with Pushpa Lal's group. That unity proved impossible and the Central Nucleus gave way to new parties. Adhikari formed his own CPN, Communist Party of Nepal (Manmohan). This party developed close relations to the Indian CPI(M). Singh's group became known as Communist Party of Nepal (4th Congress). Other splinter groups included the Nepal Workers and Peasants Party, Communist Party of Nepal (Krishna Das), Communist Party of Nepal (Burma) and Communist Party of Nepal (Manandhar).
    Although technically the original CPN, the Amatya-led group was reduced to become one of many communist factions. The party became known as Communist Party of Nepal (Amatya). The party was largely identified as part of the pro-Soviet Union stream, although it maintained some independence towards Moscow.
    Thus the Nepali communist movement was fragmented in various factions. In the early 1980s, CPN (Manmohan) and CPN (Pushpa Lal) merged to form Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist). Similarly the pro-Soviet Union factions, i.e. CPN (Burma), CPN (Manandhar) and CPN (Amatya), merged together to form Communist Party of Nepal (Democratic). The unity of that party was however very short-lived. In 1989 several communist groups got together to form the United Left Front, to struggle against the authocratic regime. Out of this cooperation CPN(ML) and Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist) united in December 1990 to form Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninists). CPN(UML) thus emerged as the major communist party in Nepal, amalgamating many of the other communist factions, including CPN (Amatya) and CPN (Burma) (which had come out of CPN (Democratic), in the beginning of the 1990s.
Official website: (Communist Party of Nepal Unified Marxist Leninist)

Esteban Rivera, 3 July 2005

Variants of the flag

[NCP Flag] image located by Jaume Ollé

A variant of the flag of the Nepal communists, showing a white hammer and sickle on red (flag format higher than wide); the smaller variant also includes some inscription (party name?) was reported in Süddeutsche Zeitung 28/29 May 2003, p. 11.
M. Schmöger, 15 June 2003

[NCP Flag] by J.A. Sommansson, 24 January 2005

This is a variant of the flag of the Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist). The common party flag is red with a white hammer & sickle. In this case a multi-pointed sun is added. The sun is the party election symbol.
J.A. Sommansson, 25 January 2005

This flag is from a single Communist Party (NCP-UML) and combines the electoral symbol (a sun) with the party symbol. Nearly all the communist parties in Nepal have a red flag with a hammer and sickle in the canton.
Jaume Ollé, 24 February 2007

Usually Nepal Maoists use red flag with white hammer & sickle but sometimes use white flag with blue hammer & sickle.
Nozomi Kariyasu, 9 March 2008

I found a photo in BBC with the white flag with a red hammer and sickle in a red circle in use, the exception is that these also includes some text:
Marcus Wendel, 21 April 2008

Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninists)

[Communist Party of Nepal Flag] image located by Esteban Rivera, 3 July 2005 at

Democratic National Youth Federation

[NCP Flag] image by Ivan Sache, 30 January 2003

The flag of the Youth Wing Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist) is shown on the party website. It is horizontally divided red-blue with a white star in the middle.
Ivan Sache, 30 January 2003

This flag has also been reported as that of the Democratic National Youth Federation, Nepal, (youth organization of CPN(UML)).
J.A. Sommansson, 30 September 2004