Last modified: 2019-01-13 by ivan sache
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Flag of Burgos - Image by "Ulaidh" (Wikimedia Commons), slightly modified, 4 June 2011
The municipality of Burgos (178,574 inhabitants in 2010; 10,708 ha; municipal website) is the capital of the Province of Burgos and the 2nd most populous municipality in Castilla y León by its population. The municipality is made of the town of Burgos and the neighboring villages of Castañares (317 inh.), Cortes (812 inh.), Cótar (24 inh.), Villafría de Burgos (904 inh.), Villagonzalo-Arenas (17 inh.), Villalonquéjar (191 inh.), Villatoro (1,191 inh.), Villayuda (490 inh.) and Villímar (888 inh.).
Burgos was founded on river Arlanzón in 884 by Count Diego Rodríguez "Porcelos". The settlement was originally a citadel set up by King of León Alfonso III to stop the Moorish raids. In the 11th-16th centuries, Burgos was the religious and administrative capital of the Kingdom of Castile. In 1074, Infants Elvira and Urraca, Alfonso VI's sisters, transferred the old Bishopric of Oca to Gamonal, a borough of Burgos; the King offered his palace in the town for the building of the Romanesque St. Mary cathedral. El Cid Campeador, the main, although turbulent and not always loyal to Alfonso VI, warlord of the time, is honoured in Burgos by an equestrian statue made in 1955 by Juan Cristóbal González Quesada; the remains of El Cid and his wife Jimena were transferred in 1921 to the Burgos Cathedral.
Alfonso VIII transferred the Royal Court to Burgos and founded the Las
Huelgas monastery close to the town. The king also initiated the
fortification of the town.
Ferdinand III celebrated in Burgos his marriage with Beatrix of Swabia. Alfonso VI's cathedral was demolished and replaced by a much bigger, Gothical cathedral. Burgos lost its military importance to become a religious and commercial center. The increased popularity of the Way of St. James contributed to the development of the town, which was famous for its churches, monasteries and pilgrims' hospitals.
In 1494, the Catholic Monarchs issued the Burgos Consulate, which granted to Burgos the Castilian monopoly on sheep wool. Famous trader's dynasties, such as the Pardo, Salamanca, Castillo, Maluenda, Polanco and Astudillo, spread the fame of the town all over Europe. The Gilded Age of Burgos, that is the 16th century, ended with a progressive decline of the town, caused, among other things, by the centralization of the Royal power and the transfer of the capital of Spain to Madrid. Several plague epidemics disrupted the social structure of the town; the ways of communication were no longer managed and trade nearly disappeared. The monarchy attempted to revamp the town at the end of the 18th century; Letters Patented signed on 16 March 1763 reinstated a kind of Consulate, to no avail.
During the Civil War, Burgos was the first seat of the National Government set up by Franco, until the seizure of Madrid in March 1939.
Ivan Sache, 4 June 2011
The flag of Burgos (photo) and its rules of use are prescribed in Article 4 of the "Rules of Protocol and Ceremony", adopted on 18 April 2008 by the Municipal Council, signed on 6 June 2008 by the Mayor, and published on 9 July 2008 in the official gazette of the Province of Burgos, No. 129 (text), as follows.
1. As stated in the Agreement adopted on 21 January 1520 by the Burgos Regiment, the flag of the town of Burgos shall be quadrangular (without prejudice of the use of the 2:3 proportions, which are in use today), with two horizontal stripes of the same size, the upper stripe red and the lower stripe brown. In the middle of the flag is placed the coat of arms of the town.
2. The flag of the town of Burgos shall be hoisted on the official buildings on the left of the flag of Spain, which is placed in the central position. On the right of the national flag shall be placed the flag of the Community of Castilla y León. In the municipal buildings where the location or other characteristics prevent to hoist the flag outdoors, the flag shall be hoisted indoors, preferably in a visible place.
3. The flag of the town of Burgos shall be placed in a specific place in the Municipal Council Room and in the official office of the Mayor, together with the national flag and the flag of the Community of Castilla y León, following the precedence order given in Article 4.2.
4. During municipal public events, the flag of Burgos shall be placed in a specific place, together with the national flag and the flag of the Community of Castilla y León, following the precedence order given in Article 4.2.
5. During public events of international character held in the municipality, the precedence order shall be as follows: Spain / Visiting country (ies) / Autonomous Community / Visiting Autonomous Communities / Burgos / Other visiting municipalities / European Union / Other international organizations.
The defacement of the flag of the town of Burgos with acronyms or symbols representing parties, trade unions, associations and other kinds of entities is forbidden.
7. The municipality is in charge of the treatment, respect and honours due to the flags.
Flag without the coat of arms
Flag of Burgos without the coat of arms - Image by Ivan Sache, 4 June 2011
"Javitomad" contributed on 6 November 2008 to Wikimedia Commons a flag of Burgos without the coat of arms, which he had seen in the streets of the town.
Ivan Sache, 4 June 2011
The banner of Burgos and its rules of use are prescribed in Article 5 of the "Rules of Protocol and Ceremony", adopted on 18 April 2008 by the Municipal Council, signed on 6 June 2008 by the Mayor, and published on 9 July 2008 in the official gazette of the Province of Burgos, No. 129 (text), as follows.
1. The banner of the municipality or pennant of the town of Burgos is made of a red panel surrounded with a golden fringe. It is attached to a two-pieced wooden staff by a golden rope. On its obverse is placed the coat of arms of Burgos outlined in gold; on its reverse is placed the coat of arms of Castilla y León, with the same characteristics.
2. The banner shall be kept in the Judges' Hall of the Town Hall.
3. The Municipal Council agreed on 6 March 1912 to raise the banner of the town when the Municipal Council marches.
4. The banner shall be borne by the junior Councillor.
Ivan Sache, 4 June 2011
The Coat of arms of Burgos and its rules of use are prescribed in Article 3 of the "Rules of Protocol and Ceremony", adopted on 18 April 2008 by the Municipal Council, signed on 6 June 2008 by the Mayor, and published on 9 July 2008 in the official gazette of the Province of Burgos, No. 129 (text), as follws.
1. The coat of arms of Burgos (see Appendix), approved on 20 June 1900 by the Municipal Council, portrays the bust of a crowned king with three castles on the breast, above him a crenelated wall with an open arch standing on a small castle at each end. The shield surmounted with a Royal crown and surrounded by lambrequins charged with the specific titles of Burgos:
- Caput Castellae: Head of Castile;
- Camera Regia [Royal Chamber]: Title recognized by all the kings;
- Prima Voce et Fide [First Voice and Faith]: Right of precedence of Burgos on all the Courts of the Kingdom as the Head of the same.
2. The coat of arms of Burgos shall be used in the institutional places of the municipality, set up at the relevant place when used with other coats of arms. The coats of arms shall be used on
2.1. The flags of Burgos used outside and inside the municipal buildings.
2.2. The municipal Regulations and Ordinances.
2.3. The notifications and official announcements issued by the municipal administration.
2.4. The documents awarding honours, distinctions and decorations.
2.5. The official publications released by the municipal administration.
2.6. The distinctive attributes used by the municipal authorities, civil servants and workers.
2.7. The objects in official use requiring the representative character of the coat of arms.
It is recommended to use it on:
2.1. The documents, printed material, seals and headers in official use.
2.2. All the municipal printed material, publications and paper material.
A black and white drawing of the coat of arms (description) is attached to the text.
The king is shown in a particular representation used for the first (known) time in 1259, wearing an open crown of the time; the three castles on his dalmatic represents the jurisdiction exerted by Burgos on Lara, Muño and Cellorigo. The castle of Lara was incorporated to Burgos in 1255 by Alfonso XI, as was the castle of Muño in 1332 by Alfonso XI; the castle of Cellorigo was incorporated to Burgos in 1370 by Henry II. The king is represented as caput castellae, which means the Head (as the ruler) of Castile, recalling that Burgos was once the capital of Castile and the seat of the Royal court.
The wall supported by the two castles means that Castile is defended by its castles from a border to another one.
Ivan Sache, 4 June 2011