Last modified: 2016-10-23 by ivan sache
Keywords: fatih | eminönü |
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Flag of Fatih, three versions - Images by Jens Pattke, 23 March 2013
The municipality of Fatih (428,857 inhabitants in 2012; 1,308 ha) covers the peninsula where historical Constantinople was built, bordering to the north the Golden Horn and to the south the Sea of Marmara. Located at the tip of the peninsula, the former municipality of Eminönü was incorporated into Fatih in 2009.
Fatih ("The Conqueror") is named for Sultan Mehmet II the Conqueror (1432-1481, reigned 1444-1446 and 1451-1481), who seized Constantinople on 29 May 1453.
Ivan Sache, 28 February 2016
The flag of Fatih is white with the municipality's emblem in red or blue. The emblem had a blue background on a previous version of the flag (photo). "Belediyese Baş ığı" means "Municipality Presidency".
The emblem of the municipality features the Conqueror's Mosque, the equestrian statue from the Conqueror's Memorial (built in Fatih Park, photo), and the Valens aqueduct.
Quoting the Sacred Destinations website:
The Fatih Mosque was constructed between 1462 and 1470 by Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror. The architect was Atik Sinan, not to be confused with the Sinan hired by Suleyman. Sultan Mehmet's goal was to build an Islamic monument more spectacular than the Ayasofya Church. Legend has it that when the mosque failed to reach as high as the church - despite being built atop a hill - the sultan had the architect's hands cut off. The mosque complex included a caravansary, a hospital, several hamams, the kitchens, and a market. Its school instructed up to 1,000 students at a time. After an earthquake in 1509, the complex was restored by Beyazit II. During another earthquake in 1771, most of it collapsed. The present mosque and complex mostly date from a reconstruction under Mustafa III, completed in 1771. The mihrab, medreses (schools), and inner courtyard survive from the original complex.
Quoting the 2010 European Capital of Culture website:
The Valens Aqueduct spans the valley between the hills which are today occupied by Istanbul University and the Fatih Mosque. It is a creation of the late Roman and the early Byzantine time. It is uncertain as to when the aqueduct’s construction began, but it is mentioned in certain sources that it was completed either during the reign of Emperor Valens (364–378) or of Hadrianus (117–138). The aqueduct was later repaired during the rule of Emperor Justinian II (576), Constantine V (741–775), and Basil II (1019). After the 11th century, and during the siege and invasion of the city, it received a large amount of damage.
During the 6th century, the Valens Aqueduct was used to provide water to the palaces of Istanbul, the Ahilleus Bath, and the Cistern. Nevertheless, according to Ruy Gonzáles de Clavijo, a Castilian diplomat who travelled to Constantinople en route to an embassy in 1403, the aqueduct was also used to water the gardens. After the conquest of Istanbul in 1453, Sultan Mehmet II repaired the whole water supply and added new arches to the structure in order to attempt to solve the water shortage problem of the city. During the Ottoman period, it was also repaired several times. The repairs and the addition of new lines and arches to the water-supplying net continued during the reign of Bayezid II (1447/48-1512), Suleiman I (1494-1566), and Mustafa II (1664-1703). These restoration works made a sufficient impact on the ability of the Valens Aqueduct to reach the present day.
It is thought that the Aqueduct of Valens had a length exceeding 1000 meters during the early Byzantine period, but today it had an average length of 971 meters and a maximum height of about 28 meters (63.5 meters above sea level). A great part of the Valens Aqueduct was destroyed and only the part located on Atatürk Boulevard has survived today.
Tomislav Šipek & Ivan Sache, 28 February 2016
The flag of the former district municipality of Eminönü (photo) was white with the district's emblem.
Tomislav Šipek, 14 January 2013