Last modified: 2015-03-14 by victor lomantsov
Keywords: kyrgyzstan | karakirghiz | asia | commonwealth of independent states | yurt | tent | sun | forty | tunduk |
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Full name: Republic of Kyrgyzstan
Location: Central Asia
Status: Internationally recognized independent state since 31 August 1991. A member of the UN and the CIS.
Notes: In 1924 a Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Region was set up as part of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. (A year later the name 'Kara' [which means 'black'] was dropped.) In 1926 the Region became an ASSR and became a full SSR in 1936. The present name was adopted in 1990, some ten months before independence from the collapsing USSR.
Stuart Notholt 26 September 1995
(26.5.2000) I saw "News" on 1st channel of russian national TV. They said:
Victor Lomantsov, 26 May 2000
Kyrghyzian Parliament today decide to made russian language second STATE LANGUAGE. President A.Akaev confirmed the decision. Parliament adopted new name of the state - Republic of Kirghizia instead of Republic of Kyrghyzstan.
I guess the change applies to both Russian and Kirghiz forms of the name. I reckon in the changes (dropping of "istan" ending and swaping from "y" top "i") the same russifying tendence. Kirghizia, in spite of not having any common border with Russia, was the second most russified central asian republic, second only to Kazakhstan (resp. 21% and 38%, as of 1989 -- Russians in the other three central asian republics didn't reach 10%).
António Martins-Tuválkin, 27 May 2000
The official name of the country is/was "Kyrgyz Respublikasy", neither "-stan", nor "-zia". Probably this means the new name in the new state language, or an imposed translation from Kyrgyz (Russian?) to foreign languages.
Jan Zrzavy, 27 May 2000
I agree with you. This means the new name in the new state language. The state short name ALWAYS was "Kyrghyzstan" in kirghiz language. In Russian it was "Kirghizia" but several last years - "Kyrghyzstan" (recomendation of Kirgh. Government).
Victor Lomantsov, 28 May 2000
by Željko Heimer
A new, post-Communist, flag was not adopted until 1992. It is red, with a circular stylized representation of the roof of a Kyrgyz yurt (tent) in the centre, surrounded by the 40 rays of a golden sun. (Tradition has it that 40 tribes were united by the national hero Manas - who used the colour red on his banner - into the Kyrgyz nation.)
Stuart Notholt, 26 September 1995
State flag adopted by Decision of Supreme Soviet (parliament) of the republic on 3, March, 1992.
Red colour symbolizes the boldness, gold sun - peace and riches.
Central element ("tunduk") symbolizes the father`s home.
40 rays of the sun symbolize 40 soldiers of Manas, the legendary hero of Kyrgyz literature.
Authors of the flag: E.Aydarbekov, B.Zhaychibekov, S.Iptarov, Zh.Mataev, M.Sadykov.
Victor Lomantsov, 12 December 2003
The cross in the center of the sun is the view from "yurt" -
national transportable house of Kyrghyz.
What I wanted to add is that if to count the rays of the sun, they
will total 40. This number is the number of Kyrghyz tribes unified into one state.
Sergey Petrov, 1 February 2003
These tribes were unified, according to Znamierowski,
by the national hero Manas. "Kyrgiz" means red, which is logically the national colour.
'Manas' is a popular Kirgyz epic, made of more than 500,000 verses
arranged in a trilogy. Some archaic parts of the poem seem to date back
to the IX-Xth centuries. They relate the marvelous elements of Manas'
life, such as his fabulous birth, his invulnerability, his marriage with
Kanykei, his meetings with the wise men Bakai and Kochoi and his blood
fraternity with Almamber. However, the central elements of the poem
relates the patriotic fight of Manas and his relatives Semetie and
Seitek against the invaders of the XVI-XVIIth centuries, portrayed as
monsters, giants and wizards in the epic. The poem was orally
transmitted from generation to generation by the 'manastchi', and was
studied for the first time by the Kazakh folklorist Valikhanov in 1856.
Source: Dictionnaire des Litteratures (Larousse)
Ivan Sache, 3 February - 14 December 2003
The Supreme Soviet (Parliament) of the Republic of Kyrgystan determines:
1. Following ammendments shall be introduced into the Constitution (Basic Law) of the Republic of Kyrgystan: replace the article 168 with the new text as follows: "Article 168. The state flag of the Republic of Kyrgystan is a horizontal rectangle of red colour, in center of which is set a circular solar disk with fourty regularly distributed rays of yellow colour. Inside the solar disk is with red colour pictured tyundyuk of a Kyrgyz yurt. The width of the flag is three fifths of its length. The diameter of the ray disk if three fifths of the flag width. Ratio of the diameters of the solar and ray disk - three to five. Diameter of tyundyuk is half the diameter of the ray disk."
2. The resulting Law introduce into validity with the time of signing [by president].
President of the Republic of Kyrgystan
Bishkek, 3 March 1992.
by Željko Heimer
Attached to Law is a sheet titled "Kyrgyz Republikasynyn Mamlekettik
Zheleginin Shemalyk Surotu / Shematicheskoe Izobrazhenie
Gosudarstvennogo Flaga Respubliki Kyrgyzstan". The first title is in
Kyrgyz presumably and showes us a glimps of the vexillologic
terminology "Mamlekettik Zheleginin" meaning no doubt 'state flag'.
The sheet showes obverse and reverse of the flag attached on a flagstaff topped with a spearhead ornamented with an ornament that is almost certainly a hammer and sickle (though it may alos be a crescent and star, it is hard to tell!). The sheet showes the dimenstions of the flag overall as 150x250 (the dimensions in originals are tenfold I present here, butthere seems to be no reason for that large numbers), and most probably they are intended to be centimeters (i.e. mm in the original).
The diameter of the virtual circle circumscruibing the sunrays is set as 90, the diameter of the red disk that is touching the rays from the inside is 54, and the yellow disk containing tyundyuk is 45. All of the disks are apparently drawn as centered in the flag middle and there is no hint here of the excentricity of the central disk!
by Željko Heimer
The second sheet of the set does not show any further info, only introduces names to the dimensions: Z - flag width, Y - flag length, D1=3/5 Z - sun rays outer diameter, D2=3/5 D1 sun rays inner diameter, D3=1/2 D1 central disk diameter. (The actual sheet include some obvious errors, D3 is set to 1/2 Z, that certainly can't be as the accopanying numbers confirm, D1 fomula is not quite readable.)
by Željko Heimer
The third sheet include the complicated construction of the tyundyuk.
It is captioned "A Kesindisi 1-6 Kesin Disine Proportsiyalash
Bolukcholoro Bolunot" which if I am not much mistaken is explanation
on the construction of the points 1 though 6.
The sheet showes the red disk circle with diameter D2 (miscaptioned actually as D1) and central disk with diameter D3, excentered upwards so that the distance between the two at the top is B and at the bottom A, with formula B=0.5A. Knowing that D2=54 and D3=45 gives clearly A=6 and B=3. The constuction of the arches is based on a line, let's call it M, that is horizontal on a distance B from the bottom of the central circle. The point D on this line is defined by a vertical tangent to the central circle. t is a central point of the circle forming the lowest arch. The arch passes though the point P that is set as the distance B above the center of the central disk O2 (center of the red disk is named O1). The (upper) interection of this arch with the central circle gives the point Y.
The points D2 though D6 that are the centers of the remaining circles are set on the line M, respectivly towards the center at distances 0.6B, 0.4B, 0.6B, 0.4B and 0.6B (i.e. 1.8, 1.2, 1.8, 1.2 and 1.8). The points Y2 though Y6 are set on a slanted line passing through the points D and Y, proportionally as those D1 though D6, but together covering the distance equal to A (=3, i.e. A is divided into 13 divisions, where the designated points are on 3, 2, 3, 2 and 3). This defines the remaining five arches.
The same construction vertically simetrical finishes the picture.
Željko Heimer, 31 January 2004 (thanks to Christopher Southworth and Victor Lomantsov who provided with the original documentation)
The protocol manual for the London 2012 Olympics (Flags and Anthems Manual London 2012 ) provides recommendations for national
flag designs. Each NOC was sent an image of the flag, including the PMS shades, for their approval by LOCOG. Once this was obtained, LOCOG produced a 60 x 90 cm
version of the flag for further approval. So, while these specs may not be the official, government, version of each flag, they are certainly what the NOC believed
the flag to be.
for Kyrgyzstan: PMS 032 red, 109 yellow. The vertical flag is simply the horizontal version turned 90 degrees clockwise
Ian Sumner, 11 October 2012
by Jens Pattke and Victor Lomantsov after http://www.president.kg/president/symbol_p_rv/shtandart_rv/ (link founded by Amir Elisha Aharoni)
According to the Russian news agency Ria Novosti (20 July 2005, 20:04),
the Central Electoral Commission of Kyrgyzstan announced on 20 July
2005 that the newly elected President of the Republic Kourmanbek Bakiev
shall be the first Kyrghyz president to be granted a pectoral medal and
a personal standard. Bakiev shall be confered these two emblems on 14
August 2005 during his official inauguration.
The pectoral medal shall be made of gold and silver with jewels and coloured pieces of enamel. The silhouette of Manas, the heroe of the national epic, shall be placed in the cener of the medal. The diameter of the medal shall be 77 mm.
The presidential standard is a red flag with a golden fringe and ribbon and the arms placed inside a golden ring in the middel of the flag. A silver plaque bearing the name of the president and the years of his mandate shall be placed on the flag staff
Ivan Sache, 22 July 2005
The Standard (flag) of the President of the Kyrghyz Republic consists of
a red cloth (color of the State flag of the Kyrghyz Republic), framed with gold
tape (width 50 mm) and fringed in gold. Ratio is 3:5.
The gold circle which diameter is three fifth of the width of the flag located in the geometrical center of flag.
The stylized image of the State Emblem (white falcon with the wings displayed; a lake, spurs of mountains Ala-Too and a rising sun with beams in golden color are in a background; the inscription in gold around the circle: "Kyrghyz Respublicasynyn Presidenti" (the President of Kyrgyz Republic - in Kyrghys language); the size of letters of the inscription equal to 1/7 of the diameter of the gold circle) located in the centre of the gold circle.
Silver plate with engraved surname, name and a patronymic name of the President of the Kyrghyz Republic in Kyrghyz language and the dates specifying term of his election is placed on the flagstaff. The staff of the standard is surmounted with gold finial spear.
Mikhail Revnivtsev, 14 August 2005
by Jens Pattke
Kyrghyz army flag. Obverse with the Kyrgyz inscription for "Kyrghyz
Republican Armed Forces" and reverse with the Kyrghyz inscription "ATA-MEKEH" for
"Fatherland" and an unkown motto. The color is a dark red.
Jens Pattke, 16 August 2005
("Kyrgyz Respublikasynyn Kuralduu Kụĉto̶rụ")
Reverse: "Ата - Мекен"
Motto: "Милдет Намыс".
António Martins-Tuválkin, 16 August 2005
I think this banner was adopted by Government Decision No 680, 1 November, 2001, and rejected by Government Decision No 256, 29 April 2002.
Victor Lomantsov, 1 February 2007
from Kyrgyzstan Ministry of Defense WEB-site resized by Victor Lomantsov
New Flag (Banner) of the Armed Forces was adopted by Decision of the Government No 256, 29 April 2002.
According the Regulation:
The banner of the Armed Forces of Kyrgyzstan Republic
represents a field of the rectangular form made from a velvet (silk) fabric of red colour.
Length of the field is 1450 millimeters, width - 1100 millimeters.
The emblem of the Armed Forces of Kyrgyzstan Republic is placed on the obverse and reverse sides
of a banner. The emblem is a falcon in golden colour, holding a sword in right claw and
an oak branch in left claw.
Shield with a five-pointed red star is placed on a breast of the falcon
Inscriptions (in semicircle, golden letters):
obverse top: "MILDET, NAMYS" ("Милдет Намыс"), in kyrghyz language;
reverse top: "DUTY, HONOUR", in russian language;
obverse bottom: "ATA-MEKEN" ("Ата - Мекен"), in kyrghyz language;
reverse bottom: "FATHERLAND", in russian language.
Banner have yellow fringe.
According link, located by Zach Harden, 2006
from Kyrgyzstan Ministry of Defense WEB-site
located by Valentin Poposki at http://www.sti.gov.kg/museum/museum/m-site/simvol.htm
I came across this news report in The Times of Central Asia:
"Tax Service of Kyrgyzstan Has Its Own Flag
Kyrgyzstan, July 4, 2001 [ 17:39 ]
BISHKEK. Prime minister of Kyrgyzstan Kurmanbek Bakiev signed resolution of the Government of the KR "On confirming a regulation on flag and sign of symbol of tax services of the KR". The document was signed on the eve of professional holiday of workers of tax services of Kyrgyzstan. According to the press service of the state tax inspection under the finance ministry of the KR, the flag was hoisted for the first time in the solemn ceremony on the occasion of significant date."
No picture accompanied the report and there was no mention of the design either.
Jan Oskar Engene, 16 October 2001
Kyrgyzstan Tax Service got its flag and emblem on June, 29th, 2001. The flag with description in russian is
Valentin Poposki, 3 December 2005
According Regulation on Flag and Sign of Tax Service of Kyrgyz Republic (adopted by decision No305 of Government of Kyrgyz Republic, 29, June, 2001):
"Flag of Tax Service of Kyrgys Republic is a rectangular field made from silk of blue-green colour, length of the field is 2500 mm, height - 1500 mm. Depiction of the Sign of the Tax Service is placed on the obverse side of the field, distance from upper and hoist edge to the Sign - 300 mm.
Sign of the Tax Service is a blue-green graphic composition inside a circle. An eagle displayed is in the centre of the circle. Inscription "KYRGYZSTAN SALYK KYZMATY" in state language is placed in semicircle in the upper part of the circle . The inscription frames the eagle" (translated by Victor Lomantsov)
located by Valentin Poposki at http://www.e-bishkek.kg/src/Poosoo/161/symbol.htm
by António Martins-Tuválkin
The 1990-1992 Kyrghyz flag, above, was quite incorrect. This is supposed to have been the Kyrghyz ASSR flag without the hammer and sickle with a ratio of 1:2.
António Martins-Tuválkin, 06 May 2000
The flag of 1990-1992 without the star, hammer and sickle is very doubtful. Maybe somebody in 1990 made same flag, but as I know official flag until 1992 was WITH star, hammer and sickle... There were many proposals of flags in 1990-1992: - blue, red, green equal horizonthal stripes divided with thin white stripes; - light-blue flag with sun in the centre; - green, white, red with the silhouette of national house ("yurta") near the hoist; etc.
Victor Lomantsov, 07 May 2000
All I can say on this is that I saw frequently in that period depictions (no photos) of the Kirghiz flag without hammer and sickle. I also saw once or twice the flag depicted with hammer and sickle, though.
So out here in the west, people thought the Kirghiz flag had dropped the sickle and hammer. I wonder where that came from?
Jorge Candeias, 09 May 2000
I saw TV spot in December 1991 (or so) in that the flag with the hammer and sickle was displayed during the official meeting ceremony in visit of some US politician, possibly President Bush. There were two poles, one with US and the other with Kyrgyzstan hammer and sickle flags.
Jan Zrzavy, 10 May 2000
The flag reported by Corbic as opposition in Kyrgyzstan must be perhaps in
fact the ruling party flag. Opposition party flag on Kyrgyzstan : Red over Blue,
source quoted as "Art info 7-11-06".
Jaume Ollé, 20 February 2007
by Victor Lomantsov
Flag of political party "Akyjkat" (Republican Party "Justice")
(drawn after photo at http://www.akiykat.kg/).
Movement "For Justice" was founded in 2007, party founden in 2010.
Victor Lomantsov, 7 October 2010
by Victor Lomantsov
by Victor Lomantsov
Two variants of the Social-Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan
1) old version: (blue with flower)
2) modern version (white with blue rectangle)
Images made after photos at http://www.sdpk.kg Victor Lomantsov, 7 October 2010
by Victor Lomantsov
In 2007 the political party "Zamandash" was founded in Kazahstan. Flag of "Zamandash" party
Images made after photos at http://www.zamandash.kg Victor Lomantsov;, 7 October 2010
by Victor Lomantsov
Assotiation for helping to kyrghyzs lived in Russia and Kazakhstan
"Zamandash" ("The contemporary") was founded in 2003. They use (till now)
blue-white-blue flag with logo and inscription "Assotiation Zamandash".
Upper part of the logo looks like the globe.
Victor Lomantsov;, 6 January 2015
by Victor Lomantsov
In 2010 the party was registered with new name "ZAMANDASH-SOVREMENNIK"
("The contemporary" in kyrghyz and russian languages) and new inscription on the flag.
Victor Lomantsov;, 6 January 2015
by Jakub Grombíř
Flag of "Eldik Kenesh" party
Eldik Kenesh (People's Council in Kyrgyz) is opposition party established at January 2010. It had fought against president Bakiev but now it claims that provisional government is ilegitimate too and that there should be 1993 Constitution readopted and then start new elections. Leader of this party is Mukar Cholponbayev. Party's flag is light blue and red bicolour, there is white circle in center holding seven red five-pointed stars (common symbol standing for traditional seven Kyrgyz tribes).
There is also photo of some demonstrating people under this flag at http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/publisher,IWPR,COUNTRYNEWS,,4b5daf741e,0.html
Jakub Grombíř, 5 June 2011