Last modified: 2014-10-18 by bruce berry
Keywords: oromiya | oromo | ethiopia | tree | star |
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Image by Jaume Ollé, 22 Oct 1999 (1st variant)
Image by Jorge Candeias, 29 Dec 1999 (2nd variant)
[Both the terms "Oromiya" and "Oromia" seem to be used - Ed.]
According to the Ethiopian Parliament
website, Oromia is the largest of the new states. It presently "comprises of 12 administrative
zones and 180 woredas. Of the 12 zones, Bale and Borena account for 45.7% of the
State's total area but only about 14% of the state's population. The
State of Oromia borders Afar, Amhara and the State of
the north, Kenya in the south, The State of
Somali in the east, the
Republic of the Sudan and the state of Benishangul/Gumuz in the west, the
State of Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' and the state of
Gambella in the south. It completely surrounds
Harari State in the north east. Based on the political map (1994 Population and
Housing Census Commission, CSA), the estimated area of the State of Oromia
is about 353,690 km2 and accounts for almost 32% of the country. The
capital is Finfine (Addis Ababa)". (I suppose that this means that part of
Addis Ababa belongs to the state). Again, this is a state based on ethnicity, having a large majority of Oromo population (85%).
It's difficult to get an idea of this state's geography in relation to the old provinces. Since it borders Kenya and Sudan, it has to be an elongated state with a sort of "arm" to the west, or somewhat triangular along central Ethiopia. The old provinces of Shawa and Arsi should be totally within Oromia, and also at least parts of Sidamo. The connection with Sudan is probably through Gojam.
Jorge Candeias, 29 Dec 1999
The image of the first variant shown above is according to Flagmaster nr. 93 (Spring 1999) [fLm]. Reports vary on the flag's ratio and shape of the tree. (based on report from Jaume Ollé, 1999. Ed).
The flag is very similar to the image posted by Jaume Olle and is
horizontal tricolour with a tree emblem in the center (2nd variant).
According to image at the Ethiopian Parliament website, the tree is less stylized and not
entirely green. It is perhaps a specific tree, but unfortunately there's no
"flora" section in the website.
Jorge Candeias, 29 Dec 1999
The tree represented on the Oromo is a sycamore, known
locally known as "oda". In the traditional "Gada" system, the "Gada"
officers meet under the tree before "Chafee" meetings (http://www.gumii.org/gada/understd.html).
Ivan Sache, 04 Nov 2009
Image contributed by Tesfaye Gabriel, 27 Jan 1999
Before colonization, the Oromo nation was free and had their own social, political and legal system. This system is called "Gadaa", and is a system that has guided the religious, social, political, economic, their philosophy, art, history and method of time keeping. In Gadaa system the Oromo society is grouped according to their age and undertake different responsibilities in different ages.
In Gadaa system, the Oromo practiced their own religion by worshipping Waaqa (which means God). Waaqa is one and the same for all. The religious affairs are undertaken by the Qaallu/Qaallitti (male/female) just like other religious leaders (such as a Bishop, Imam, Rabbi, etc). The Qaallu/Qaallitti play both a spiritual and political role in the Gadaa system where different national ceremonies are organized and overseen by Qaallu/Qaallitti institution. It was also a repository of important ceremonial articles or collective symbols like in the Buttaa ceremony, the bokku (scepter), the national flag, etc.
The local flag is made in the colours of the Qaallu turban (surri ruufa).
and has three equal stripes: black at the top, red in the center and white at the bottom. In the
Gadaa system, the three colours of black, red and white represent
those yet to enter active life, those in active life and those who had passed through
active life respectively - in short we can say the colours represent the past, current, and
Thanh-Tâm Lê, 11 Feb 1999
This flag is also shown on the chart Flags of Aspirant Peoples [eba94] (listed under nr. 24).
Antonio Martins, 29 May 2003
Image by Jaume Ollé, 22 Oct 1999
Source: Flagmaster nr. 93 (Spring 1999) [fLm].
The ruling party in the Oromiya National Regional State, is
the Oromo People's Democratic Organization (OPDO) or "Dhaabbata Demokraatawaa
Ummata Oromoo" (DhDUO) which was founded in 1989.
The OPDO is a member of the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). Together with the the Amhara National Democratic Movement, the South Ethiopian Peoples' Democratic Front and the Tigrayan Peoples' Liberation Front, the OPDO was founded in 1989 and superseded the Oromo Liberation Front as the main ethnic Oromo party.
The flag of OPDO, as shown on their website, is divided horizontally red over yellow with a green triangle placed along the hoist and a tree in the middle.
Sache, 04 Nov 2009
Oromo Liberation Front
Image by Thanh-Tâm Lê, 27 Jan 1999
In a 1992 magazine I found a picture showing the flag of Oromo Liberation
Front. This is an
armed Ethiopian movement struggling for independence of the Oromo people. The flag
has three horizontal stripes of red, green and red with a yellow rayed disc in
which is a green Oromo 'tree', above which is a small red 5-pointed star.
Giuseppe Bottasini, 24 June 1996
The flag of the Oromo Liberation Front, appeared in
Flagmaster No. 068 - 1991, p.7 [fLm]. This article gives the colour details of the flag.
The only actual colour meaning it gives for the central yellow Sun. The red star
would symbolize the left-wing political direction of this movement, I assume. It
also lists the then address of the Oromo Relief Association (1 Amwell Street, London, EC1R 1UL, England,
This flag also appears on my flag chart,
Flags of Aspirant Peoples, flag no. 24 [eba94].
Ralph Bartlett, 20 Nov 2004
In 2009 OLNF was divided in two factions:
the Oromo Liberation Front - Qaama Ceehumsa (OLF-QC) and the Oromo Liberation Front - Shanee Gumii
(OLF-SG), both using
the same flag. In 2010 one of the factions created the Revolutionary
Democratic Oromo Liberation Front (RDOLF). The white over red could be the
unknown flag of RDOLF which joined ULFO on 07 March 2011. The OLF
didn't change its flags and the main faction is using now a red, green, red
ULFO was created in April 2010 by three movements:
1) Front for Independent Democratic Oromiyaa (FIDO) which has a red, green, red flag with its emblem in the centre;
2) United Oromo People’s Liberation Front (UOPLF) which has a black, red, white flag with its emblem in the centre;
3) Council of Oromiyaa People’s Liberation Front (COPLF)
or Gumii adda
bilisimmaa ummata. Its flag has black, red and white
The flag of ULFO has black, red and
white horizontal stripes.
A extensive article about flags of Afaria, Gambella, Harar, Oromia and Ogadenia will be published in Flag Report 72 that will be distributed in October 2014.
Jaume Ollé, 09 Sept 2014
Image by Valentin Poposki, 25 April 2007
You'll notice that the flag is very similar to the
flag of Oromo Liberation Front. The FIDO
website describes its mission as:
"The central mission of the Front for Independent
Democratic Oromia (FIDO) is to utilize all necessary
means recognized by United Nations General Assembly to
liberate the Oromia people from the political tyranny
and domination of Ethiopian government so that the
people of Oromia can exercise their inalienable right
for self-determination." The flag is also shown on their site.
Valentin Poposki, 25 April 2007