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Keywords: jablunkov | jazygs |
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If you enter the Czech Republic from the east, the town of Jablunkov
is the first town which will welcome you. It is a town with history, modern
buildings, central town area as well as scattered cottages on slopes of
the hills. 7,000 inhabitants live here. In the Middle Ages the town belonged
to the Těšín principality. Documents concerning its origin are not available
nowadays. The first historical writings date from 1435. The original Jablunkov
castle was situated in the area of the present village of Hrádek
(about 4 km to the north). The castle was destroyed by the Hungarians in
1447. Then Jablunkov started to flourish in the contemporary area. Jablunkov
obtained municipal right by prince Václav in 1560. Because of the good
position of the town, crafts, especially pottery and became, in the 18th
century, the main source of income. Regular markets held here, too. On
the other side, wars, plague and cholera epidemics have harmful effect
on the town development. Styled wooden houses formed the town till the
19th century. A great number of fires especially the last fire in 1890
resulted in the fact that the inhabitants of Jablunkov started to build
brick houses characterized by ground floor vaults. These houses are today's
centre of the town - The Mariánské nám. Square with little streets. In
the centre of the square there is a public fountain decorated by the Baroque
sculpture - "Immaculata" which dates from 1655. Wooden water pipes originally
belonged to the fountain. The house No. 150 from the 14th century is the
oldest brick house. Princess Kateřina Sidonie possessed this house and
therefore it its still called "the princess house". The town hall, built
in the Vienna style in 1904, belongs to the most important buildings in
A pilot Antonín Velebnovský, a colonel, has been an important person in the town. He took part in the battle for England in World War II. The memorial tablet located on his native house in the street called after him commemorates his importance.
The church buildings characterize the historical development of the town. The first wooden church was built in about 1223 and the new and larger one in 1401. In 1620 this church was replaced by a brick building designed in the late Gothic style. The height of the tower is 47 m. Near the God's Body church you can visit the old monastery where there is an exhibition and concert hall today. The new convent of St. Alžběta with the hospital was finished in 1932. The Jablunkov cemetary has played its important role in the town since 1800. In 1994 the monastery of Františkáni was rebuilt from originally family house and it was consecrated in the same year.
The "Sarmatian Jazygs" were original inhabitants of the town and the name of the middle class people - the Jackové - just comes from this original name. Till the 19th century the Jackové differentiated from its surroundings, which was especially agricultural and mountain one, by their special middle class slothing. Josef Mánes, a Czech painter, described this clothing in his pictures. People commemmorate the old tradition by a traditional folk festival - Gorolski Święto - which is held annually at the beginning of August. A great number of folk groups from this country as well from abroad take part in this festival.
During 1933 - 1935 the hospital for treating tuberculosis and other respiratory diseases was built in the west part of the town. There are also reconditional and rehabilitation stays here. The hospital is a cultural sight - it is an important and beautiful building designed by the architect Miloš Laml. The hospital park with the area of 37 ha is a place with several little lakes and about 350 kinds of trees originating from Europe, Asia and the American continent; there are also statues of Vincenc Makovský and Jan Tříska. The park was founded in the 20th of the 20th century.
The town of Jablunkov is situated in the valley of the Olše river and is surrounded by beautiful Beskydy mountains. The hills of Čantoryje (994 m), Velký Stožek (978 m), and Bahenec are in the east. The mountains are decorated by the Olše river. In the south part of the mountains there is the Gírová hill (840 m) and then over the hill of Velký Polom (1,067 m) the Moravskoslezské Beskydy mountains begin. In the west from Jablunkov one can visit the valley of the Lomná river which is a very attractive place. There is a natural reserved area - a virgin forest Mionši of 172 ha in the area. This forest is not open for public.
The international motorway E75 goes through the town. The are several frontiers- in Bukovec to Poland and in Mosty u Jablunkova to Slovakia.
Fast trains stop at the railway station in nearby Návsí. There are several hotels with a good accomodation in the town and there is a great number of recreational centres in the surroundings.
Source: this site.
Jarig Bakker, 25 Jul 2005