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Chinese Soviet Republic

Last modified: 2014-04-14 by zoltán horváth
Keywords: china | chinese soviet republic | war flag | kiangsi |
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The Chinese Soviet Republic (simplified Chinese: 中华苏维埃共和国; traditional Chinese: 中華蘇維埃共和國; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Sūwéi'āi Gònghéguó), also translated as the Soviet Republic of China or the China Soviet Republic, and often referred to in historical literature as the Jiangxi Soviet (after its largest component territory the Jiangxi-Fujian Soviet, seat of its central government), was a state established in November 1931 by the future Communist Party of China leader Mao Zedong, legendary general Zhu De and others. Its other, discontiguous territories were:
a.. Northeastern Jiangxi Soviet
b.. Hunan-Jiangxi Soviet
c.. Hunan-Hubei-Jiangxi Soviet
d.. Hunan-Western Hubei Soviet
e.. Hunan-Hubei-Sichuan-Guizhou Soviet
f.. Shaanxi-Gansu Soviet
g.. Hubei-Henan-Anhui Soviet
h.. Honghu Soviet
(Haifeng-Lufeng Soviet in eastern Guangdong, China's first Soviet territory, had been crushed before the declaration of the CSR and is considered more a predecessor than a constituent part).
Mao Zedong was CSR State Chair and Prime Minister - at once the Head of the State and of its Government. It was from this "small state within a state" that he gained the experience in Mobile Warfare and peasant organization that he later used to accomplish the Communist conquest of China in the late 1940s.
The CSR was destroyed by the Kuomintang (KMT)'s National Revolutionary Army in a series of Encirclement Campaigns eventually designed by the German general Hans von Seeckt.
Nozomi Kariyasu,  04 December 2009

The Flag used between 1931 and 1934

[flag of the Chinese Soviet Republic]
image by Jaume Ollé

In the Twenties the Chinese communists proclaimed a Soviet republic in Kiangsi. A flag was hoisted. The left sign means: "Communist", the right one: "Chinese". Source: Michel Lupant (through A. Chang). Another pattern is shown in Flags Through The Ages And Across The World by W. Smith.
Jaume Ollé, 1 March 1997

I am currently trying to figure out the actual flag(s) of the Chinese soviet republic (1931-1937). I wonder if you could give me a hand on this one.
Apparently the first flag was this one :
I'm trying to figure out the use of this one :
However, I have a hunch that it could have been adopted in 1935, after the fall of the Soviet Jiangxi, when the soviet government relocated to the Soviet Shaanxi after the Long march (which means that the first one was abandoned circa 1934), and was therefore the state's final flag. Am I right ?
Any idea of where the "axe and sickle" (instead of hammer and sickle) symbol comes from ?
It does look a lot (hence my deduction) like this one : which is apparently the war flag (of the Chinese red army), adopted in 1935 (?).
According to the description on commons, this one:  is the flag of the Communist party's central committee in the Chinese soviet republic.
Do you know what are this one :  this one:
and this one ? : are they specific soviet territories ?
Do you know when this war flag was adopted, and when it was abandoned ? :
I could really use your expertise on the subject, as this is a bit messy.
JJ Georges, 17 September 2009

The Flag adopted in 1934

[flag of the Chinese Soviet Republic]
image by Jaume Ollé, 01 March 2014

Chinese Soviet Republic adopted its national flag and war flag at the 2nd National People's Congress held during January 22nd-February 1st 1934.
The national flag is a red field charged with national emblem in the center which is composed of yellow crossed a hammer and a sickle on globe surrounded with yellow wheat wreath and a yellow five pointed star above it.
Source: Atlas of Flags in China 2003 & History of Chinese War Flags 2010
Nozomi Kariyasu, 01 March 2014

Chinese Soviet Republic War Flag (1932-1934)

[Chinese Soviet Republic War Flag]
image by Jaume Ollé, 04 December 2009

The Chinese Soviet Republic was the first communist controlled government in China. It was proclaimed 3 January 1932 in Kiangsi and was overthrown by Chiang Kai-shek on 10 November 1934. The Chinese Communist Party adopted their own War Flag in 1935, which was red bearing a large 5-pointed white star in the center upon which was a *black* hammer and sickle of the Russian-soviet type. It was abandoned in late 1937 when the communists joined with the nationalists to fight the Japanese. I am not aware that the Communist Party of China (CPC) adopted any other distinctive flags subsequent to WWII and 1949. The Chinese Red Army, on the other hand adopted a red banner with a single yellow star in the canton after the Japanese defeat, during the struggle for control of China with the Nationalists. I am not sure when, but at some point, and I think it was after 1949, the numerals 8 and 1 were added to the army flag, standing for the date of its founding, 1 August 1928.
David Martucci, 1997-February-25

The red flag charged with yellow star in canton and yellow hammer and sickle in the center.
Nozomi Kariyasu,  04 December 2009

[Chinese Soviet Republic War Flag]
Variant of flag
image by Jaume Ollé, 04 December 2009

The war flag is a red field charged with yellow crossed a hammer and a sickle and yellow five pointed star in the canton.
Source: Atlas of Flags in China 2003 & History of Chinese War Flags 2010
Nozomi Kariyasu, 01 March 2014