Last modified: 2016-06-14 by ian macdonald
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image by Martin Grieve, 18 August 2006
Flag adopted 4th August 1979
The official name of the Cook Islands is the Cook Islands. It would be rather unusual to say the least to refer to this country today as the Associated State of the Cook Islands. It would also be incorrect to refer to this country by that expression if that were to infer that the Cook Islands lacked its own international personality and had less than plenary competence to engage in international affairs in its own right. Indeed, for example, the Cook Islands recently became a contracting party to the Cotonou Agreement between 77 African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) States and the European Union, that Agreement being open for participation only by independent States. As well, the Cook Islands is a full member of a number of world organisations of which New Zealand is also a separate and full member (e.g. FAO, ICAO, UNESCO, WHO and WMO). While the Cook Islands is in a relationship of free association with New Zealand, that relationship does not qualify the Cook Islands' plenary competence referred to above.
The Maori translation of the Cook Islands is te Kuki Airani, not Rarotonga, the latter being the main island of this country.
James Gosselin, International Legal Advisor, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Immigration, 3 January 2001 (in an e-mail to Roger Moyer)
The following information is from the US Department of the Interior on islands of disputed sovereignty in the 20th century. The document appears to be from early 1998, so there may be some changes. In a treaty signed June 11, 1980, the United States renounced claims to four atolls in favor of Cook Island sovereignty. The treaty was effective September 8, 1983. The atolls were: Danger (Pukapuka), Manahiki, Penrhyn and Rakahanga.
Phil Nelson, 27 April 2000
The Cook Islands were declared a British protectorate in 1888, and annexed to
New Zealand in 1901. In 1965, they were granted
self-government with their own unicameral Parliament. They
have an elected Legislative Assembly, and a Queen's Representative who ratifies the legislation. (Those familiar with Westminster style constitutions will understand that this ratification is merely a formality with its roots founded in the fact that
the head of state is the Queen of New Zealand, as the Cook Islands are
part of the Realm of New Zealand.)
Jonathan Dixon, 17 August 2006
British Blue Ensign with fifteen white five-pointed stars in a circle in the fly. The ratio is 1:2. The stars represent the 15 islands in the Cook Islands group. The use of the Blue Ensign refers to the British links of the Cook Islands, formerly as part of, and now as an independent state in free association with, New Zealand.
Stuart Park, 8 December 1995
The Cook Islands ensign is described and its symbolism explained in the Government of the Cook Islands website:
The Constitution declares the Cook Islands Ensign described below to be the recognised flag of the Cook Islands (Article 76C):-
"The Cook Islands Ensign shall be a Royal blue ensign. The Union Jack shall occupy the upper staff quarter, having on the fly 15 stars in a symmetrical ring, all of equal size and equal spacing, and the colour of the stars shall be white. The flag proportion of length to breadth shall be two to one.
"And it shall mean -
(Third Schedule to the Constitution).
- "Blue - is the colour most expressive of our Nation, it is representative of the vast area of the Pacific Ocean in which the islands of the Cook Islands are scattered. Blue also depicts the peaceful nature of the inhabitants of our islands.
- "Union Jack - indicates our historical association with and membership of the British Commonwealth.
- "The 15 white stars - represent the 15 islands of the group."
Santiago Dotor, 3 February 1999
According to Barraclough and Crampton 1981 [bcr81], pp. 212 and 252:
And according to Crampton 1989 [cra89], p. 126:
A new design for the flag was introduced on 4 August 1979. The circle of stars is now white, and is placed in the fly of a British-style Blue Ensign, thus making the flag much more like that of New Zealand. This change follows a change of leadership in the islands. The present flag is not unlike that originally submitted by Len Staples in the 1973 competition.
The Cook Islands have had many flags, the latest having been adopted on 4 August 1979. It continues to use the ring of fifteen stars (one for each island) used on the previous flag, which was otherwise plain green. The change was made when the Cook Islands Party lost power to the Democratic Party, whose colours are blue and white.
Santiago Dotor, 4 January 2000
The Cook Islands' Constitution describes the flag as a Royal blue ensign. Perhaps they wanted to say British blue ensign (the most natural description, surely) but decided that that was politically incorrect as they were subjects of the Crown of New Zealand? Royal blue ensign seems like a compromise that would issue from that, though it is patently confusing.
Andrew Yong, 13 January 2000
According to the World
Flags Database, the stars on the flag are now larger (since 1999?)
and are as shown above. Album des Pavillons [pay00] shows a similar arrangement on
plate no. 2.3, fig. 17.
Martin Grieve, 18-19 August 2006
My own specification shows a flag almost identical (both in the sizes of the stars
and the circle which places them) to the one above, but
that on the official website shows the stars
as being rather smaller, as previously shown on this page [now
The protocol manual for the London 2012 Olympics (Flags
and Anthems Manual London 2012) provides recommendations for national flag
designs. Each NOC was sent an image of the flag, including the PMS shades, for
their approval by LOCOG. Once this was obtained, LOCOG produced a 60 x 90 cm
version of the flag for further approval. So, while these specs may not be the
official, government, version of each flag, they are certainly what the NOC
believed the flag to be.
For Cook Islands: PMS 281 blue, 032 red. The vertical flag is simply the horizontal version turned 90 degrees clockwise.
Ian Sumner, 10 October 2012
image by Željko Heimer, modified by António Martins, 13 October 2002
1:2 image by Martin Grieve, 18 August 2006
Queen's Representative. Source: an article by Michel Lupant in Gaceta de Banderas [gdb], no. 9, 1993.
Victor Lomantsov, 7 January 2001
Probably he is still a High Commissioner. Whitaker's Almanac 1986 has, "The High Commissioner of the Cook Islands is employed in a dual role, since he represents both the Queen and the New Zealand Government".
David Prothero, 10 January 2001
Please note that the New Zealand High Commissioner in the Cook Islands is not the Queen's Representative this is a separate office, held by a Cook Islander, Sir Apenera
Ken Westmoreland, 9 February 2002
Sir Apenara was replaced by Sir Frederick Goodwin as Queen's
Representative some years ago.
Garth Broadhead, 17 August 2006
image by Randy Young, 23 November 2015
The Customs Revenue and Border Protection Act 2012 prescribes a Customs flag at
Section 11. 'The Customs flag must be the Cook Islands (flag) with the addition
in the fly of the words "Cook Islands Customs Service" in bold characters.'
Jeff Thomson, 23 November 2015
Since the wording of the Act was somewhat vague on the exact placement of the
words, I took the liberty of placing them
within the circle of stars in place of the "HMC" currently on our site.
Randy Young, 23 November 2015
1:2 image by Victor Lomantsov, modified by António Martins, 13 October 2002
Source: an article by Michel Lupant in Gaceta de Banderas [gdb], no. 9, 1993.
Victor Lomantsov, 7 January 2001
~3:7 (?) image by Jaume Ollé
According to Crampton 1989 [cra89], p. 126:
The Prime Minister of the Cook Islands flys [sic] a blue flag with the Islands' logo (combined C and I) in white in the centre.But John Walters, the Government of the Cook Islands webmaster, wrote to me in January 2000:
I have checked with the Prime Minister's department and have been told there is definitely no such thing as the "Prime Minister's Flag".This office is currently held by Hon. Terepai Maoate.
A black and white photo of the car flag of the Cook Islands' prime minister was taken in 1985 and reported by Crux Australis [cxa] Vol. IV 2/18, April 1988, quoted by Vexillinfo [vxf] no. 97. The flag is proportion c. 3:7 and is a plain flag with a central emblem. The background is possibly blue and the emblem white, but this has not been confirmed.
Jaume Ollé, 21 January 2000
Has anyone seen the flag of Penrhyn Island located East of Tokelau? Does it have its own flag?
Nozomi Kariyasu, 22 March 1999
The Cook Islands consist of two groups: the Southern (or Lower) and Northern Cook Islands. The Northern group is rather scattered and consists of:
A person from the Cook Islands once wrote to me that "some of the larger islands in the southern group have a banner, particularly Atiu". Unfortunately, he did not know where to get hold of one. However, it is not impossible that the 500 Penrhynese also have a banner, although they live in the Northern group of islands if I remember correctly.
Thanh-Tâm Lê, 22 March 1999
John Walters, the Government of the Cook Islands webmaster, wrote to me in January 2000, referring to subnational and/or island flags, "There is only one flag for the Cook Islands."
Santiago Dotor, 10 January 2000